Rovaniemi University of Applied science

Rovaniemi, Finland

Rovaniemi University of Applied science

Rovaniemi, Finland

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Korhonen T.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science | Kylma J.,University of Tampere | Kylma J.,University of Oulu | Valimaki M.,University of Turku | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2012

Summary This study describes Finnish university students' knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and AIDS, homosexuality and sexual risk behaviour. Finnish-speaking students were randomly selected from all registered students at two universities in Finland (N=9715, n=950). The data were collected by using a modified version of the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Nursing AIDS Study Questionnaire on sexual risk behaviour developed by Held and Chng. The total response rate was 35% (n=333). The data were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. Normally distributed data were analysed by t-test and one-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections. Non-normally distributed data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a post-hoc test. The majority of students were familiar with HIV and AIDS, including its mode of transmission. However, there were still some misconceptions concerning HIV and AIDS. The oldest students and women had a more positive attitude towards people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Of patients with HIV or AIDS, intravenous drug users were perceived most negatively. Male students had more homophobic attitudes. Students who reported that religion had an important role in their lives had significantly stricter attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour. Students' knowledge correlated positively with general attitudes towards HIV and AIDS. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS will lead to more positive attitudes towards HIV and AIDS as a disease, towards those infected as well as homosexual people. There is a need to focus on preventive health care and sexual health promotion by educating young people and changing their attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.


Diaz M.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Flensted-Jensen E.,Cypresvej 1 | Grim T.,Palacky University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

All animals flee from potential predators, and the distance at which this happens is optimized so the benefits from staying are balanced against the costs of flight. Because predator diversity and abundance decreases with increasing latitude, and differs between rural and urban areas, we should expect escape distance when a predator approached the individual to decrease with latitude and depend on urbanization. We measured the distance at which individual birds fled (flight initiation distance, FID, which represents a reliable and previously validated surrogate measure of response to predation risk) following a standardized protocol in nine pairs of rural and urban sites along a ca. 3000 km gradient from Southern Spain to Northern Finland during the breeding seasons 2009-2010. Raptor abundance was estimated by means of standard point counts at the same sites where FID information was recorded. Data on body mass and phylogenetic relationships among bird species sampled were extracted from the literature. An analysis of 12,495 flight distances of 714 populations of 159 species showed that mean FID decreased with increasing latitude after accounting for body size and phylogenetic effects. This decrease was paralleled by a similar cline in an index of the abundance of raptors. Urban populations had consistently shorter FIDs, supporting previous findings. The difference between rural and urban habitats decreased with increasing latitude, also paralleling raptor abundance trends. Overall, the latitudinal gradient in bird fear was explained by raptor abundance gradients, with additional small effects of latitude and intermediate effects of habitat. This study provides the first empirical documentation of a latitudinal trend in anti-predator behavior, which correlated positively with a similar trend in the abundance of predators. © 2013 Díaz et al.


Jokimaki J.,University of Lapland | Jokimaki J.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science | Kaisanlahti-Jokimaki M.-L.,University of Lapland | Suhonen J.,University of Turku | And 3 more authors.
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2011

Cities are extremely human-modified environments, with few existing original habitats. Local, regional and global studies have indicated scale-dependent patterns of communities in relation to urbanization. In general, species with high abundance in urban environments are generalist species, whereas specialists have declined. However, these results do not indicate directly if urban habitats are either sink or source habitats for wildlife. Reproductive success, mortality, and dispersion are key factors to improve our understanding of how to support more diverse animal communities in urban environments. We need more research on the factors affecting the behavioral responses to urbanization of species with different life-histories. Some studies have demonstrated that urbanization has clear impacts on the behavior of wildlife species, a character that is strongly related to the success of species in a given habitat. Indeed, animals can adapt to urban ecosystems behaviorally, for example, by adjusting their food preferences, foraging behavior, anti-predator behavior, or extending the length of their reproduction season. Merging community and behavioral ecology will enable a more effective conservation of remnant semi-natural habitats in urbanized landscapes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Hakala P.T.,University of Tampere | Hakala P.T.,Health Center | Saarni L.A.,University of Tampere | Ketola R.L.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background. The use of computers has increased among adolescents, as have musculoskeletal symptoms. There is evidence that these symptoms can be reduced through an ergonomics approach and through education. The purpose of this study was to examine where adolescents had received ergonomic instructions related to computer use, and whether receiving these instructions was associated with a reduced prevalence of computer-associated health complaints. Methods. Mailed survey with nationally representative sample of 12 to 18-year-old Finns in 2001 (n = 7292, response rate 70%). In total, 6961 youths reported using a computer. We tested the associations of computer use time and received ergonomic instructions (predictor variables) with computer-associated health complaints (outcome variables) using logistic regression analysis. Results. To prevent computer-associated complaints, 61.2% reported having been instructed to arrange their desk/chair/screen in the right position, 71.5% to take rest breaks. The older age group (16-18 years) reported receiving instructions or being self-instructed more often than the 12- to 14-year-olds (p < 0.001). Among both age groups the sources of instructions included school (33.1%), family (28.6%), self (self-instructed) (12.5%), ICT-related (8.6%), friends (1.5%) and health professionals (0.8%). Receiving instructions was not related to lower prevalence of computer-associated health complaints. Conclusions. This report shows that ergonomic instructions on how to prevent computer-related musculoskeletal problems fail to reach a substantial number of children. Furthermore, the reported sources of instructions vary greatly in terms of reliability. © 2010 Hakala et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Suhonen J.,University of Turku | Jokimaki J.,University of Lapland | Jokimaki J.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2015

Urbanization changes landscape, causes destruction of natural habitats, and reduces species diversity. Urbanization can alter the interaction between fruit-bearing plants and frugivorous birds such as the Fieldfare, Turdus pilaris, and Bohemian waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus, which are the most abundant frugivorous bird species in Finland. Rowanberry, Sorbus aucuparia, is an ornamental tree species used commonly in the urban landscaping. It can promote bird diversity and the pleasantness of the urban environment for humans. The study was conducted on three spatial scales ranging from the macro scale (600. km latitudinal gradient) to the regional scale (rural vs. urban habitats), and to the micro scale (different tree parts) in three towns and their nearby rural areas in Finland. About 25 trees were photographed on each site three times during the autumn until the rowanberry fruit-crop had been used up. At the beginning of the research the crop size was larger on the urban trees than that of rural ones. The fruit removal rate was not related to the geographical location. However, in urban habitats the fruits were consumed later than in rural habitats. At the tree-level, the rowanberry fruits were removed earlier at the tops of trees. Our results suggest that earlier use of rowanberry fruits from rural habitats and tree tops may be related on human and predator-related disturbances. Our results indicated that urban rowanberry fruit crop is important food resource for frugivorous bird species in urban areas. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Forsman J.T.,University of Oulu | Reunanen P.,University of Jyväskylä | Jokimaki J.,University of Lapland | Jokimaki J.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science | Monkkonen M.,University of Jyväskylä
Annales Zoologici Fennici | Year: 2013

We studied the effects of small-scale disturbance on breeding, forest passerine birds in an old-growth and managed boreal forests in northern Finland. Small-scale disturbance (< 2 ha) in an old-growth and managed forests originated from wind falls and small clear cuts. Continuous forest without gaps was used as a control for both management types (old-growth and managed forests). Passerines' response to disturbance was examined by estimating species richness and abundance of different ecological groups. Species richness and the total abundance of birds did not differ between gap and non-gap plots, neither did the abundance of most ecological groups. Management type or study year were the most important factors explaining abundances. Our results differ from studies conducted in temperate forests, mainly in North America, where small-scale disturbance have been found to increase avian diversity and abundance. Differences between boreal and temperate forests or in avian assemblages between continents may explain observed differences. © 2013 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board.


Hyry-Honka O.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science | Maatta K.,University of Lapland | Uusiautti S.,University of Lapland
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education | Year: 2012

Abreast Bourdieu's cultural, economic, social, and symbolic capital, O'Rand introduced human and personal capital as well as institutional, communal, and moral capital. In this article, the main focus is on health. Could health be defined as capital? What does health capital consist of? In this article, the concept of health capital is defined in relation to other capital types. The aim is to review and create a theoretical framework. The fundamental idea is that cherishing health creates a basis for happy life and well-being but health promotion requires new research and approaches. The concept of health capital is positively charged: it is something that is worth acquiring and investing in. Therefore, using the concept of health capital we can increase the appreciation of health. © 2013 Institute of Health Promotion and Education.


Karjalainen A.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science | Peisa K.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science
Proceedings of the International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, POAC | Year: 2013

This document considers the research of developing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) based ice thickness measurement that can be used, for example, in inspecting ice thickness of ice cover in snowmobile track or for ice breakers. As a result we present some crucial prerequisites of the measuring system which is based on the use of single GPR antenna. We used two different radars in our studies GSSI SIR 10 and SIR 20 with 1 GHz horn antenna which were installed in a snowmobile. We tested driving tracks on fresh water lake ice and on sea ice on a slight saline. The measured GPR data was analyzed in association with the holes bored to the ice. The ice thickness profile can be obtained from GPR measuring by using the physical relationship between the penetration speed of the signal in the medium and the permittivity of it. Dielectric constant of a medium represents the permittivity, and it can be determined from measured GPR signal together with the thickness that is measured manually from holes. Alternatively, dielectric value can be determined also by reference measuring on a metal plate in which the reflected surface pulse amplitude of the medium is compared to the one reflected from the metal plate. This method is widely used in GPR based road inspections. Our case studies proved that the thickness profile can be determined quite accurately from GPR survey data by detecting the travelling time of the transmitted pulse through the ice layer. In order to obtain this accuracy the snow-ice conditions have to be dry. The wide variation of permittivity of snowpack structure does not affect the travelling time of the signal in ice layer and, hence, the accuracy of the method. However, it actually eliminates the possibility to follow changes in permittivity of ice by following the amplitude of the ice surface reflections. This amplitude based technique is also widely used in remote sensing of road structures. Slush and "sandwich" structures inside the ice may cause serious obstacles for the method.


Jokimaki J.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Jokimaki J.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science | Jokimaki J.,University of Lapland | Solonen T.,Luontotutkimus Solonen Oy
Ornis Fennica | Year: 2011

Conservation areas are important for many species associated with old forests, but most individuals still occur in commercially-used forest landscapes. We conducted three-visit breeding bird surveys in a total of 37 study squares of 1 km , and used National Forest Inventory data to evaluate habitat associations of birds linked with old forests in three geographical regions: southern, eastern and northern Finland. All study squares were located within managed forests. Out of the total of 23 pre-selected old-forest species, 12 were recorded in the study squares of all three study regions; the number of species varied between 16 and 21 among the regions. The total abundance did not significantly vary among the regions, but the abundances of many single species varied significantly among the regions. Forest-patch size was the single most important factor, positively affecting the abundance of most of the species considered. Development class affected most species in the south and east, and species associated with mature and old forest stands in general. Tree height and stand age were included into the models more often than tree species and , diameter. In general, forest patch size, developmental class, age and tree height were among the most important factors in explaining the abundance of old-forest bird species in commercially-used forests. These stand characteristics appeared particularly important for resident species and cavity nesters. Our results indicate that the responses of old-forest bird species to environmental variation in managed, forested landscapes are individualistic, and different factors may affect them in different regions. Variables included in the patch-level forest-inventory data well explained abundance variation of species associated with old forests. Our results underscore the importance of integrating national forestinventory and bird-survey data to obtain information about species habitat requirements and forest-sector related information about the effects of forestry on birds.


PubMed | Rovaniemi University of Applied science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of biosocial science | Year: 2012

This study describes Finnish university students knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and AIDS, homosexuality and sexual risk behaviour. Finnish-speaking students were randomly selected from all registered students at two universities in Finland (N = 9715, n = 950). The data were collected by using a modified version of the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Nursing AIDS Study Questionnaire on sexual risk behaviour developed by Held and Chng. The total response rate was 35% (n = 333). The data were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. Normally distributed data were analysed by t-test and one-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections. Non-normally distributed data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a post-hoc test. The majority of students were familiar with HIV and AIDS, including its mode of transmission. However, there were still some misconceptions concerning HIV and AIDS. The oldest students and women had a more positive attitude towards people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Of patients with HIV or AIDS, intravenous drug users were perceived most negatively. Male students had more homophobic attitudes. Students who reported that religion had an important role in their lives had significantly stricter attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour. Students knowledge correlated positively with general attitudes towards HIV and AIDS. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS will lead to more positive attitudes towards HIV and AIDS as a disease, towards those infected as well as homosexual people. There is a need to focus on preventive health care and sexual health promotion by educating young people and changing their attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour.

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