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Suhonen J.,University of Turku | Jokimaki J.,University of Lapland | Jokimaki J.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2015

Urbanization changes landscape, causes destruction of natural habitats, and reduces species diversity. Urbanization can alter the interaction between fruit-bearing plants and frugivorous birds such as the Fieldfare, Turdus pilaris, and Bohemian waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus, which are the most abundant frugivorous bird species in Finland. Rowanberry, Sorbus aucuparia, is an ornamental tree species used commonly in the urban landscaping. It can promote bird diversity and the pleasantness of the urban environment for humans. The study was conducted on three spatial scales ranging from the macro scale (600. km latitudinal gradient) to the regional scale (rural vs. urban habitats), and to the micro scale (different tree parts) in three towns and their nearby rural areas in Finland. About 25 trees were photographed on each site three times during the autumn until the rowanberry fruit-crop had been used up. At the beginning of the research the crop size was larger on the urban trees than that of rural ones. The fruit removal rate was not related to the geographical location. However, in urban habitats the fruits were consumed later than in rural habitats. At the tree-level, the rowanberry fruits were removed earlier at the tops of trees. Our results suggest that earlier use of rowanberry fruits from rural habitats and tree tops may be related on human and predator-related disturbances. Our results indicated that urban rowanberry fruit crop is important food resource for frugivorous bird species in urban areas. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Jokimaki J.,University of Lapland | Jokimaki J.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science | Kaisanlahti-Jokimaki M.-L.,University of Lapland | Suhonen J.,University of Turku | And 3 more authors.
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2011

Cities are extremely human-modified environments, with few existing original habitats. Local, regional and global studies have indicated scale-dependent patterns of communities in relation to urbanization. In general, species with high abundance in urban environments are generalist species, whereas specialists have declined. However, these results do not indicate directly if urban habitats are either sink or source habitats for wildlife. Reproductive success, mortality, and dispersion are key factors to improve our understanding of how to support more diverse animal communities in urban environments. We need more research on the factors affecting the behavioral responses to urbanization of species with different life-histories. Some studies have demonstrated that urbanization has clear impacts on the behavior of wildlife species, a character that is strongly related to the success of species in a given habitat. Indeed, animals can adapt to urban ecosystems behaviorally, for example, by adjusting their food preferences, foraging behavior, anti-predator behavior, or extending the length of their reproduction season. Merging community and behavioral ecology will enable a more effective conservation of remnant semi-natural habitats in urbanized landscapes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hakala P.T.,University of Tampere | Hakala P.T.,Health Center | Saarni L.A.,University of Tampere | Ketola R.L.,Finnish Institute of Occupational Health | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background. The use of computers has increased among adolescents, as have musculoskeletal symptoms. There is evidence that these symptoms can be reduced through an ergonomics approach and through education. The purpose of this study was to examine where adolescents had received ergonomic instructions related to computer use, and whether receiving these instructions was associated with a reduced prevalence of computer-associated health complaints. Methods. Mailed survey with nationally representative sample of 12 to 18-year-old Finns in 2001 (n = 7292, response rate 70%). In total, 6961 youths reported using a computer. We tested the associations of computer use time and received ergonomic instructions (predictor variables) with computer-associated health complaints (outcome variables) using logistic regression analysis. Results. To prevent computer-associated complaints, 61.2% reported having been instructed to arrange their desk/chair/screen in the right position, 71.5% to take rest breaks. The older age group (16-18 years) reported receiving instructions or being self-instructed more often than the 12- to 14-year-olds (p < 0.001). Among both age groups the sources of instructions included school (33.1%), family (28.6%), self (self-instructed) (12.5%), ICT-related (8.6%), friends (1.5%) and health professionals (0.8%). Receiving instructions was not related to lower prevalence of computer-associated health complaints. Conclusions. This report shows that ergonomic instructions on how to prevent computer-related musculoskeletal problems fail to reach a substantial number of children. Furthermore, the reported sources of instructions vary greatly in terms of reliability. © 2010 Hakala et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Hyry-Honka O.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science | Maatta K.,University of Lapland | Uusiautti S.,University of Lapland
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education | Year: 2012

Abreast Bourdieu's cultural, economic, social, and symbolic capital, O'Rand introduced human and personal capital as well as institutional, communal, and moral capital. In this article, the main focus is on health. Could health be defined as capital? What does health capital consist of? In this article, the concept of health capital is defined in relation to other capital types. The aim is to review and create a theoretical framework. The fundamental idea is that cherishing health creates a basis for happy life and well-being but health promotion requires new research and approaches. The concept of health capital is positively charged: it is something that is worth acquiring and investing in. Therefore, using the concept of health capital we can increase the appreciation of health. © 2013 Institute of Health Promotion and Education. Source

Jokimaki J.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Jokimaki J.,Rovaniemi University of Applied science | Jokimaki J.,University of Lapland | Solonen T.,Luontotutkimus Solonen Oy
Ornis Fennica | Year: 2011

Conservation areas are important for many species associated with old forests, but most individuals still occur in commercially-used forest landscapes. We conducted three-visit breeding bird surveys in a total of 37 study squares of 1 km , and used National Forest Inventory data to evaluate habitat associations of birds linked with old forests in three geographical regions: southern, eastern and northern Finland. All study squares were located within managed forests. Out of the total of 23 pre-selected old-forest species, 12 were recorded in the study squares of all three study regions; the number of species varied between 16 and 21 among the regions. The total abundance did not significantly vary among the regions, but the abundances of many single species varied significantly among the regions. Forest-patch size was the single most important factor, positively affecting the abundance of most of the species considered. Development class affected most species in the south and east, and species associated with mature and old forest stands in general. Tree height and stand age were included into the models more often than tree species and , diameter. In general, forest patch size, developmental class, age and tree height were among the most important factors in explaining the abundance of old-forest bird species in commercially-used forests. These stand characteristics appeared particularly important for resident species and cavity nesters. Our results indicate that the responses of old-forest bird species to environmental variation in managed, forested landscapes are individualistic, and different factors may affect them in different regions. Variables included in the patch-level forest-inventory data well explained abundance variation of species associated with old forests. Our results underscore the importance of integrating national forestinventory and bird-survey data to obtain information about species habitat requirements and forest-sector related information about the effects of forestry on birds. Source

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