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Indianapolis, IN, United States

Walsh J.P.,Indiana University | Walsh J.P.,Roudebush Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Kitchens A.C.,Indiana University
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine

Endogenous testosterone levels are inversely associated with cardiovascular risk in older men and men with cardiovascular disease. Current data on cardiovascular outcomes of testosterone therapy include only observational studies and adverse event monitoring in short-term trials that were not designed to measure cardiovascular outcomes. These studies have yielded conflicting results, and some have raised concerns that testosterone therapy may increase cardiovascular risk. A well-designed, adequately powered, prospective trial will ultimately be required to clarify whether testosterone therapy impacts cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the findings and limitations of recent studies of cardiovascular risk in older men on testosterone therapy and discusses some of the mechanisms through which testosterone may modify cardiovascular risk. © 2015 . Source

Goldzweig Dr. C.L.,Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System | Orshansky Dr. G.,Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System | Paige Dr. N.M.,Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System | Towfigh Dr. A.A.,Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Internal Medicine

Background: Patient portals tied to provider electronic health record (EHR) systems are increasingly popular. Purpose: To systematically review the literature reporting the effect of patient portals on clinical care. Data Sources: PubMed and Web of Science searches from 1January 1990 to 24 January 2013. Study Selection: Hypothesis-testing or quantitative studies of patient portals tethered to a provider EHR that addressed patient outcomes, satisfaction, adherence, efficiency, utilization, attitudes, and patient characteristics, as well as qualitative studies of barriers or facilitators, were included. Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently extracted data andaddressed discrepancies through consensus discussion. Data Synthesis: From 6508 titles, 14 randomized, controlled trials; 21 observational, hypothesis-testing studies; 5 quantitative, descriptive studies; and 6 qualitative studies were included. Evidence is mixed about the effect of portals on patient outcomes and satisfaction although they may be more effective when used with case management. The effect of portals on utilization and efficiency is unclear, although patient race and ethnicity, education level or literacy, and degree of comorbid conditions may influence use. Limitation: Limited data for most outcomes and an absence of reporting on organizational and provider context and implementation processes. Conclusion: Evidence that patient portals improve health outcomes, cost, or utilization is insufficient. Patient attitudes are generally positive, but more widespread use may require efforts to overcome racial, ethnic, and literacy barriers. Portals represent a new technology with benefits that are still unclear. Better understanding requires studies that include details about context, implementation factors, and cost. © 2013 American College of Physicians. Source

Hsueh C.-H.,Indiana University | Chen N.X.,Indiana University | Lin S.-F.,Indiana University | Chen P.-S.,Indiana University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

Patients with CKD have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality from arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We used a rat model of CKD (Cy/+) to study potential mechanisms of increased ventricular arrhythmias. Rats with CKD showed normal ejection fraction but hypertrophic myocardium. Premature ventricular complexes occurredmore frequently in CKDrats than normal rats (42%versus 11%, P =0.18). By optical mapping techniques, action potential duration (APD) at 80% of repolarization was longer in CKD rats (78±4ms) than normal rats (63±3ms, P<0.05) at a 200-ms pacing cycle length. Calcium transient (CaT) duration was comparable. Pacing cycle length thresholds to induce CaT alternans or APD alternans were longer in CKD rats than normal rats (100±7 versus 80±3 ms and 93±6 versus 76±4 ms for CaT and APD alternans, respectively, P<0.05), suggesting increased vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmia. Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 9 of 12 CKD rats and 2 of 9 normal rats (P<0.05); early afterdepolarization occurred in two CKD rats but not normal rats. The mRNA levels of TGF-Β, microRNA-21, and sodium calcium-exchanger type 1 were upregulated, whereas the levels of microRNA-29, L-type calcium channel, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase type 2a, Kv1.4, and Kv4.3 were downregulated in CKD rats. Cardiac fibrosis was mild and not different between groups. We conclude that cardiac ion channel and calcium handling are abnormal in CKD rats, leading to increased vulnerability to early afterdepolarization, triggered activity, and ventricular arrhythmias. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Matthias M.S.,Roudebush Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Psychiatric rehabilitation journal

Patient-centered communication has been linked to patient satisfaction, treatment adherence and outcomes. Shared decision making (SDM) has been advocated as an important and ethically essential aspect of patient-centered care, but SDM has received relatively little attention in mental health care, despite studies indicating that consumers want to be involved in making decisions. This is particularly important in a recovery-oriented system, where consumers are active participants in their treatment and rehabilitation. Because medication management is a key component of recovery from severe mental illnesses, this study explores how consumers and providers make decisions in medication management consultations. Four providers (3 psychiatrists, 1 nurse practitioner) and 40 consumers with severe mental illness (10 consumers per provider) were recruited from a community mental health center with a recovery-oriented focus. We directly observed 40 medication management appointments. Observations were audio recorded and transcribed. We used emergent thematic analysis to characterize decision making processes. Providers initiated most decisions, although they often invited consumers to participate in decision making. Decisions initiated by consumers elicited a greater degree of discussion and disagreement, but also frequently resulted in consumers' preferences prevailing. Consultations generally exhibited more characteristics of person-centeredness than SDM. While we observed a high degree of person-centeredness, SDM was not prevalent. Interventions helping consumers to take greater initiative when working with service providers may be helpful. For example, programs using tools such as peer instruction, Internet-based software, and individual case-manager instruction all have shown promise for enhancing SDM in mental health treatment. Further research is needed to determine the degree of SDM in other settings (e.g., with case managers) and the impact of SDM on consumers' recovery. Source

El-Achkar T.M.,Indiana University | El-Achkar T.M.,Roudebush Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Dagher P.C.,Indiana University
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology

The mammalian kidney is an organ composed of numerous functional units or nephrons. Beyond the filtering glomerulus of each nephron, various tubular segments with distinct populations of epithelial cells sequentially span the kidney from cortex to medulla. The highly organized folding of the tubules results in a spatial distribution that allows intimate contact between various tubular subsegments. This unique arrangement can promote a newly recognized type of horizontal epithelial-to-epithelial cross talk. In this review, we discuss the importance of this tubular cross talk in shaping the response of the kidney to acute injury in a sense and sensibility model. We propose that injury-resistant tubules such as S1 proximal segments and thick ascending limbs (TAL) can act as “sensors” and thus modulate the responsiveness or “sensibility” of the S2-S3 proximal segments to injury. We also discuss new findings that highlight the importance of tubular cross talk in regulating homeostasis and inflammation not only in the kidney, but also systemically. © 2015 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved. Source

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