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El-Khuffash A.F.,Rotunda Hospital | Jain A.,Mount Sinai Hospital | Jain A.,University of Toronto | Weisz D.,Sunnybrook Health science Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objective To compare differences in tissue Doppler imaging, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) between infants with low (<200 mL/kg/min) and high (>200 mL/kg/min) left ventricular (LV) output 1 hour after duct ligation and assess the impact of milrinone treatment on cardiac output and myocardial performance. Study design LV function was assessed preoperatively and 1 and 18 hours postoperatively. Infants were categorized into a low-output or a normal-output group based on the echocardiographic assessment of LV output at 1 hour. Results Thirty infants with a mean gestation of 25.3 weeks were enrolled. LV basal lateral S′, basal septal S′, and basal right ventricular S′ were lower in the low-output group (n = 19) at 1 hour postoperatively, with no significant difference in GLS (low-output -10.3% vs high-output -14.4%, P >.05) or cTnT between the groups. Patients in the low-output group were treated with milrinone, and by 18 hours LV performance recovered to levels comparable with the high output group. cTnT values increased at 18 hours in the whole cohort with no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Tissue Doppler imaging and GLS provide novel insights and further characterization of myocardial performance immediately after patent ductus arteriosus ligation. A reduction in tissue Doppler-derived LV systolic velocity may further help in monitoring cardiac performance after patent ductus arteriosus ligation and for monitoring the effects of treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Peters C.J.,University College London | Kayemba-Kays S.,University College London | Geary M.P.P.,Rotunda Hospital | Hindmarsh P.C.,University College London
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Background: Gestational diabetes is associated with increased birth size. Blood glucose concentrations within the nondiabetic range affect birth size but whether this influences postnatal growth is unclear. Methods: We measured fasting blood glucose concentrations (FBG) in 1650 singleton Caucasian pregnancies at 12 and 28 weeks' gestation and related values to birth weight and weight at 12 and 24 months of age. Pregnancies complicated by antepartum hemorrhage, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and prematurity were excluded. Results: Mean maternal age was 30 years and 49% were primiparous. There was a weak relationship between birth weight (z score) and FBG at 12 (r=0.1; P<.006) and 28 (r=0.1; P<.001) weeks. FBG at 12 and 28 were correlated (r=0.3; P<.001). Mothers at 12 and 28 weeks of pregnancy with higher FBG were shorter and heavier. The relationship between FBG at 12 and 28 weeks and birth weight was not observed in primiparous women and FBG was not associated with weight at any postnatal time point. Conclusions: These data suggest that in a low-risk United Kingdom pregnancy cohort FBG concentrations in the nondiabetic range affect birth weight in multiparous women. The effect is small (50 g change in birth weight/1 mmol/L FBG change) and does not persist into postnatal life. This implies a limited role for maternal glucose status within the normal range in determining size in infancy. © 2013 by The Endocrine Society. Source

El-Khuffash A.,Rotunda Hospital | McNamara P.J.,University of Toronto | Lapointe A.,University of Toronto | Jain A.,University of Toronto
Neonatology | Year: 2013

Background: Targeted milrinone treatment for low left ventricular output (LVO) reduces the incidence of acute cardiorespiratory instability following ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants. Despite this, some infants continue to experience postoperative deterioration. Adrenal insufficiency related to prematurity has been postulated as a possible mechanism. Objectives: To describe adrenal function in premature infants undergoing PDA ligation and to investigate its association with pre-and postoperative clinical and echocardiography-derived indices of disease severity. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted over a 2-year period on infants who underwent PDA ligation and had preoperative adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. All infants were screened by echocardiography for low LVO at 1 h after surgery and treated with intravenous milrinone if LVO <200 ml/kg/min. The primary outcome evaluated was low LVO at 1 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes included hypotension and oxygenation and ventilation failure occurring within 24 h. Results: A total of 35 infants at a median gestation of 25.4 (24.5-26.4) weeks and weight at birth of 700 (600-810) g were included. Baseline median cortisol measured preoperatively was 202 (137-403) nmol/l. Following the ACTH stimulation test, 3 infants had cortisol ≤500 nmol/l while 15 had ≤750 nmol/l. There was no association seen between any cortisol value and low LVO postoperatively. Post-ACTH cortisol ≤750 nmol/l was significantly associated with hypotension (p = 0.03) and oxygenation (p = 0.04) and ventilation (p = 0.008) failure. Receiver-operator characteristic curve showed a high predictive value of post-ACTH cortisol for all clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Post-ACTH cortisol (≤750 nmol/l) may be associated with clinical indices of postoperative cardiorespiratory instability. Relative adrenal insufficiency may play a role in the etiology of post-PDA ligation hemodynamic and respiratory instability. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Hindmarsh P.C.,University College London | Bryan S.,University College London | Geary M.P.P.,University College London | Cole T.J.,Rotunda Hospital
Pediatrics | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: In a prospective study, we investigated the impact of early growth on blood pressure at 3 years of age. METHODS: We measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for 590 children 3 years of age and related measurements to current size and size at birth, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years of age. RESULTS: SBP was related positively to weight at 3 and 2 years and, after adjustment for current size, negatively to weight at birth and 6 months but not at 1 or 2 years. No effect was observed for DBP. A family history of hypertension was associated with higher maternal blood pressure, greater weight, and gestational hypertension (P = .05). Mothers with a history of gestational hypertension had higher SBP and DBP values (P < .001). In multivariate linear regression analyses, SBP was influenced positively by weight at 3 years and family history of hypertension and negatively by weight at 6 months. None of the factors was associated with DBP. CONCLUSIONS: For 3-year-old children, current weight was a determinant of SBP and postnatal growth to 6 months of age was more predictive than birth weight. A family history of hypertension is important in determining maternal blood pressure. These observations suggest a window in which postnatal growth might be modified. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Ecimovic P.,Materials Misercordiae Hospital | Loughrey J.P.R.,Rotunda Hospital
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia | Year: 2010

Ultrasound equipment is increasingly used by non-radiologists to perform interventional techniques and for diagnostic evaluation. Equipment is becoming more portable and durable, with easier user-interface and software enhancement to improve image quality. While obstetric utilisation of ultrasound for fetal assessment has developed over more than 40 years, the same technology has not found a widespread role in obstetric anaesthesia. Within the broader specialty of anaesthesia; vascular access, cardiac imaging and regional anaesthesia are the areas in which ultrasound is becoming increasingly established. In addition to ultrasound for neuraxial blocks, these other clinical applications may be of value in obstetric anaesthesia practice. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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