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News Article | May 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The question about why more intelligent people tend to be atheistic dates back to the times of Romans and Ancient Greeks. The link between intelligence and religion can be explained if religion is considered an instinct, and intelligence the ability to rise above one's instincts. This is the suggestion by Edward Dutton of the Ulster Institute for Social Research in the UK, and Dimitri Van der Linden of the Rotterdam University in the Netherlands, in an article in Springer's journal Evolutionary Psychological Science. The Intelligence-Mismatch Association Model proposed by the two authors tries to explain why historical evidence and recent survey data in different countries and between various groupings supports the stance that intelligence seems to be negatively associated with being religious. Their model is based on the ideas of evolutionary psychologist Satoshi Kanazawa's Savanna-IQ Principles, according to which human behavior will always be somehow anchored in the environment in which their ancestors developed. Dutton and van der Linden argue that religion should be regarded as a separate evolved domain or instinct, whereas intelligence allows people to rise above their instincts. Rising above instincts is advantageous because it helps people to solve problems. "If religion is an evolved domain then it is an instinct, and intelligence -- in rationally solving problems -- can be understood as involving overcoming instinct and being intellectually curious and thus open to non-instinctive possibilities," explains Dutton. In the proposal of their Intelligence-Mismatch Association Model, Dutton and van der Linden also investigate the link between instinct and stress, and the instinctiveness with which people tend to operate during stressful periods. They argue that being intelligent helps people during stressful times to rise above their instincts. "If religion is indeed an evolved domain -- an instinct -- then it will become heightened at times of stress, when people are inclined to act instinctively, and there is clear evidence for this," says Dutton. "It also means that intelligence allows us to able to pause and reason through the situation and the possible consequences of our actions." The researchers believe that people who are attracted to the non-instinctive are potentially better problem solvers. "This is important, because in a changing ecology, the ability to solve problems will become associated with rising above our instincts, rendering us attracted to evolutionary mismatches," adds van der Linden. Reference: Dutton, E. & Van der Linden, D. (2017). Why is Intelligence Negatively Associated with Being Religious, Evolutionary Psychological Science, DOI: 10.1007/s40806-017-0101-0


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Historical evidence collected over time and data gathered through recent surveys both point to a curious fact: intelligent people tend to be atheists. And since this is not a new phenomenon, social scientists have long tried to explain the link between intelligence and disbelief in god. A research paper, published online Tuesday in the journal Evolutionary Psychological Science, attempts to explain the link. In the paper, Edward Dutton of Ulster Institute for Social Research in the United Kingdom and Dimitri Van der Linden of the Rotterdam University in the Netherlands suggest: “The link between intelligence and religion can be explained if religion is considered an instinct, and intelligence the ability to rise above one’s instincts.” Read: Pope Says Atheism Is Better Than Being An Immoral Christian The two researchers proposed a new model called the Intelligence-Mismatch Association Model which tried to explain why more intelligent people tended toward atheism since the time of Greeks and Romans. To arrive at their model, the paper’s authors first considered three existing models that sought to provide a reason for the negative association between being smart and theism. They rejected two of the models — Irrationality of Religion Model and Cultural Mediation Hypothesis — as being problematic and suggested a substantial revision of the third. Called the Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, this third model was the brainchild of evolutionary psychologist Satoshi Kanazawa and was based on the premise that “human behavior will always be somehow anchored in the environment in which their ancestors developed,” according to a statement on the website of Springer, publisher of the journal. Calling religion an instinct and intelligence the ability to rise above it, the model proposed by Dutton and van der Linden says “an inclination toward the non-instinctive will thus be an aspect of intelligence because it will help us to solve problems. Thus, intelligence will involve being attracted to evolutionary mismatch, to that which we would not be instinctively evolved to be attracted to. It is this, we argue, that is behind the negative religion-intelligence nexus.” In the statement, Dutton explained: “If religion is an evolved domain then it is an instinct, and intelligence – in rationally solving problems – can be understood as involving overcoming instinct and being intellectually curious and thus open to non-instinctive possibilities.” While working on Intelligence-Mismatch Association Model, researchers also examined the association between instinct and stress. “If religion is indeed an evolved domain – an instinct – then it will become heightened at times of stress when people are inclined to act instinctively, and there is clear evidence for this,” says Dutton. “It also means that intelligence allows us to able to pause and reason through the situation and the possible consequences of our actions.” This ability to pause and reason is what allows for better problem solving, one of the markers of intelligence. “This is important because, in a changing ecology, the ability to solve problems will become associated with rising above our instincts, rendering us attracted to evolutionary mismatches,” van der Linden said.


News Article | May 17, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

The question about why more intelligent people tend to be atheistic dates back to the times of Romans and Ancient Greeks. The link between intelligence and religion can be explained if religion is considered an instinct, and intelligence the ability to rise above one's instincts. This is the suggestion by Edward Dutton of the Ulster Institute for Social Research in the UK, and Dimitri Van der Linden of the Rotterdam University in the Netherlands, in an article in Springer's journal Evolutionary Psychological Science. The Intelligence-Mismatch Association Model proposed by the two authors tries to explain why historical evidence and recent survey data in different countries and between various groupings supports the stance that intelligence seems to be negatively associated with being religious. Their model is based on the ideas of evolutionary psychologist Satoshi Kanazawa's Savanna-IQ Principles, according to which human behavior will always be somehow anchored in the environment in which their ancestors developed. Dutton and van der Linden argue that religion should be regarded as a separate evolved domain or instinct, whereas intelligence allows people to rise above their instincts. Rising above instincts is advantageous because it helps people to solve problems. "If religion is an evolved domain then it is an instinct, and intelligence -- in rationally solving problems -- can be understood as involving overcoming instinct and being intellectually curious and thus open to non-instinctive possibilities," explains Dutton. In the proposal of their Intelligence-Mismatch Association Model, Dutton and van der Linden also investigate the link between instinct and stress, and the instinctiveness with which people tend to operate during stressful periods. They argue that being intelligent helps people during stressful times to rise above their instincts. "If religion is indeed an evolved domain -- an instinct -- then it will become heightened at times of stress, when people are inclined to act instinctively, and there is clear evidence for this," says Dutton. "It also means that intelligence allows us to able to pause and reason through the situation and the possible consequences of our actions." The researchers believe that people who are attracted to the non-instinctive are potentially better problem solvers. "This is important, because in a changing ecology, the ability to solve problems will become associated with rising above our instincts, rendering us attracted to evolutionary mismatches," adds van der Linden.


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: www.cnet.com

Technically Incorrect offers a slightly twisted take on the tech that's taken over our lives. Stephen Hawking and Neil DeGrasse Tyson have declared that there is no God. But can science offer suggestions as to why they might have made this decision? New research from the Ulster Institute for Social Research in Northern Ireland and Rotterdam University in the Netherlands examined the "robust negative association between religion and intelligence." Indeed, a Pew survey last year said that those who have no religion cite science as the reason why. This latest study, published in Evolutionary Psychological Science, reached some controversial conclusions about where religion comes from and why intelligence undermines it. The researchers examined different models that had been proposed for explaining why believers are allegedly less intelligent. It selected and revised evolutionary psychologist Satoshi Kanazawa's Savanna-IQ Principle. This suggests that what we do and believe has its foundation in the environment of our ancestors. The researchers concluded that religion is an evolved instinct, while intelligence "involves rising above our instincts." After all, intelligence and all that comes with it does often involve controlling our instincts in order to allow our minds to reach rational conclusions. Indeed, as Hawking told Spain's El Mundo last year: "Before we understand science, it is natural to believe that God created the universe. But now science offers a more convincing explanation." Edward Dutton and Dimitri Van der Linden -- authors of this latest study -- put it a different way: "Intelligence will involve being attracted to evolutionary mismatch, to that which we would not be instinctively evolved to be attracted to." It's a charming thought that our evolutionary instincts don't lead us naturally to thinking for ourselves. Perhaps that's why we still make so many fundamentally poor decisions. Intelligence also has its problems, though. It's not just that intelligent people can tend to think too much. It's also the disturbing pattern -- in my experience, at least -- of intelligent people often claiming to be unhappy. Now that's a subject that surely needs more research.


Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated potential for regenerative medicine strategies. Knowledge of the way these cells respond to their environment in in vitro culture and after implantation in vivo is crucial for successful therapy. Oxygen tension plays a pivotal role in both situations. In vivo, a hypoxic environment can lead to apoptosis, but hypoxic preconditioning of MSCs and overexpression of prosurvival genes like Akt can reduce hypoxia-induced cell death. In cell culture, hypoxia can increase proliferation rates and enhance differentiation along the different mesenchymal lineages. Hypoxia also modulates the paracrine activity of MSCs, causing upregulation of various secretable factors, among which are important angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 (IL6). Finally, hypoxia plays an important role in mobilization and homing of MSCs, primarily by its ability to induce stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression along with its receptor CXCR4. This article reviews the current literature on the effects of hypoxia on MSCs and aims to elucidate its potential role in regenerative medicine strategies.


Fakhry F.,Rotterdam University
Journal of vascular surgery | Year: 2012

Exercise therapy is a common intervention for the management of intermittent claudication (IC). However, considerable uncertainty remains about the effect of different exercise components such as intensity, duration, or content of the exercise programs. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of supervised walking therapy (SWT) as treatment in patients with IC and to update and identify the most important exercise components resulting in an optimal training protocol for patients with IC. A systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 1966 and February 2012 were included if they evaluated the effectiveness of SWT. Predefined exercise components were extracted, including treadmill use during training, claudication pain end point used during walking, length of the SWT program, and total training volume. A meta-analysis and meta-regression was performed to evaluate the weighted mean difference in maximum walking distance (MWD) and pain-free walking distance (PFWD) between SWT and noninterventional observation. Twenty-five RCTs (1054 patients) comparing SWT vs noninterventional observation showed a weighted mean difference of 180 meters (95% confidence interval, 130-230 meters) in MWD and 128 meters (95% confidence interval, 92-165 meters) in PFWD, both in favor of the SWT group. In multivariable meta-regression analysis, none of the predefined exercise components were independently associated with significant improvements in MWD or PFWD. SWT is effective in improving MWD and PFWD in patients with IC. However, pooled results from the RCTs did not identify any of the exercise components including intensity, duration, or content of the program as being independently associated with improvements in MWD or PFWD. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.


Van Der Heijden M.,Rotterdam University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

This study analyzes a waveguide consisting of two parallel fluidfilled chambers connected by a narrow slit that is spanned by two coupled elastic beams. A stiffness gradient exists in the longitudinal direction. This simple linear system, which contains no lumped mass, is shown to act as a spectral analyzer. Fluid waves traveling in the waveguide exhibit a distinct amplitude peak at a longitudinal location that varies systematically with frequency. The peaking is not based on resonance, but entirely on wave dispersion. When entering its peak region, the wave undergoes a sharp deceleration associated with a transition in which two propagation modes exchange roles. It is proposed that this mode shape swapping underlies the frequency analysis of the mammalian cochlea.


Ince C.,Rotterdam University
Current Opinion in Critical Care | Year: 2014

Purpose of Review: The ultimate purpose of fluid administration in states of hypovolemia is to correct cardiac output to improve microcirculatory perfusion and tissue oxygenation. Observation of the microcirculation using handheld microscopes gives insight into the nature of convective and diffusive defect in hypovolemia. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new platform for hemodynamic-targeted fluid therapy based on the correction of tissue and microcirculatory perfusion assumed to be at risk during hypovolemia. Recent Findings: Targeting systemic hemodynamic targets and/or clinical surrogates of hypovolemia gives inadequate guarantee for the correction of tissue perfusion by fluid therapy especially in conditions of distributive shock as occur in inflammation and sepsis. Findings are presented, which support the idea that only clinical signs of hypovolemia associated with low microcirculatory flow can be expected to benefit from fluid therapy and that fluid overload causes a defect in the diffusion of oxygen transport. Summary: We hypothesized that the optimal amount of fluid needed for correction of hypovolemia is defined by a physiologically based functional microcirculatory hemodynamic platform where convection and diffusion need to be optimized. Future clinical trials using handheld microscopes able to automatically evaluate the microcirculation at the bedside will show whether such a platform will indeed optimize fluid therapy. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Purpose: Recently, a new suture-button fixation device has emerged for the treatment of acute distal tibiofibular syndesmotic injuries and its use is rapidly increasing. The current systematic review was undertaken to compare the biomechanical properties, functional outcome, need for implant removal, and the complication rate of syndesmotic disruptions treated with a suture-button device with the current 'gold standard', i.e. the syndesmotic screw. Method: A literature search in the electronic databases of the Cochrane Library, EMbase, Pubmed Medline, and Google Scholar, between January 1st 2000 to December 1st 2011, was conducted to identify studies in which unstable ankle fractures with concomitant distal tibiofibular syndesmotic injury were treated with either a syndesmotic screw or a suture-button device. Results: A total of six biomechanical studies, seven clinical full-text studies and four abstracts on the TightRope system, and 27 studies on syndesmotic screw or bolt fixation were identified. TheAOFAS of 133 patients treated with TightRope was 89.1 points, with an average study follow-up of 19 months. The AOFAS score in studies with 253 patients treated with syndesmotic screws (metallic and absorbable) or bolts was 86.3 points, with an average study follow-up of 42 months. Two studies reported an earlier return to work in the TightRope group. Implant removal was reported in 22 (10%) of 220 patients treated with a TightRope (range, 0-25%), in the screw or bolt group the average was 51.9% of 866 patients (range, 5.8-100%). Conclusion: The TightRope system has a similar outcome compared with the syndesmotic screw or bolt fixation, but might lead to a quicker return to work. The rate of implant removal is lower than in the syndesmotic screw group. There is currently insufficient evidence on the long-term effects of the TightRope and more uniform outcome reporting is desirable. In addition, there is a need for studies on cost-effectiveness of the treatment of acute distal tibiofibular syndesmotic disruption treated with a suture-button device. © The Author(s) 2012.


Borst J.G.G.,Rotterdam University
Trends in Neurosciences | Year: 2010

The release probability, the average probability that an active zone of a presynaptic terminal releases one or more vesicles following an action potential, is tightly regulated. Measurements in cultured neurons or in slices indicate that this probability can vary greatly between synapses, but on average it is estimated to be as high as 0.5. In vivo, however, the size of synaptic potentials is relatively independent of recent history, suggesting that release probability is much lower. Possible causes for this discrepancy include maturational differences, a higher spontaneous activity, a lower extracellular calcium concentration and more prominent tonic inhibition by ambient neurotransmitters during in vivo recordings. Existing evidence thus suggests that under physiological conditions in vivo, presynaptic action potentials trigger the release of neurotransmitter much less frequently than what is observed in in vitro preparations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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