Ince C.,Rotterdam University
Current Opinion in Critical Care | Year: 2014
Purpose of Review: The ultimate purpose of fluid administration in states of hypovolemia is to correct cardiac output to improve microcirculatory perfusion and tissue oxygenation. Observation of the microcirculation using handheld microscopes gives insight into the nature of convective and diffusive defect in hypovolemia. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new platform for hemodynamic-targeted fluid therapy based on the correction of tissue and microcirculatory perfusion assumed to be at risk during hypovolemia. Recent Findings: Targeting systemic hemodynamic targets and/or clinical surrogates of hypovolemia gives inadequate guarantee for the correction of tissue perfusion by fluid therapy especially in conditions of distributive shock as occur in inflammation and sepsis. Findings are presented, which support the idea that only clinical signs of hypovolemia associated with low microcirculatory flow can be expected to benefit from fluid therapy and that fluid overload causes a defect in the diffusion of oxygen transport. Summary: We hypothesized that the optimal amount of fluid needed for correction of hypovolemia is defined by a physiologically based functional microcirculatory hemodynamic platform where convection and diffusion need to be optimized. Future clinical trials using handheld microscopes able to automatically evaluate the microcirculation at the bedside will show whether such a platform will indeed optimize fluid therapy. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
MacKenbach J.P.,Rotterdam University |
Karanikolos M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
McKee M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
The Lancet | Year: 2013
Europe, with its 53 countries and divided history, is a remarkable but inadequately exploited natural laboratory for studies of the effects of health policy. In this paper, the first in a Series about health in Europe, we review developments in population health in Europe, with a focus on trends in mortality, and draw attention to the main successes and failures of health policy in the past four decades. In western Europe, life expectancy has improved almost continuously, but progress has been erratic in eastern Europe, and, as a result, disparities in male life expectancy between the two areas are greater now than they were four decades ago. The falls in mortality noted in western Europe are associated with many different causes of death and show the combined effects of economic growth, improved health care, and successful health policies (eg, tobacco control, road traffic safety). Less favourable mortality trends in eastern Europe show economic and health-care problems and a failure to implement effective health policies. The political history of Europe has left deep divisions in the health of the population. Important health challenges remain in both western and eastern Europe and signify unresolved issues in health policy (eg, alcohol, food) and rising health inequalities within countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Van Der Heijden M.,Rotterdam University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014
This study analyzes a waveguide consisting of two parallel fluidfilled chambers connected by a narrow slit that is spanned by two coupled elastic beams. A stiffness gradient exists in the longitudinal direction. This simple linear system, which contains no lumped mass, is shown to act as a spectral analyzer. Fluid waves traveling in the waveguide exhibit a distinct amplitude peak at a longitudinal location that varies systematically with frequency. The peaking is not based on resonance, but entirely on wave dispersion. When entering its peak region, the wave undergoes a sharp deceleration associated with a transition in which two propagation modes exchange roles. It is proposed that this mode shape swapping underlies the frequency analysis of the mammalian cochlea.
Schepers T.,Rotterdam University
International Orthopaedics | Year: 2011
Purpose: Although open reduction and internal fixation is currently considered the gold standard in surgical treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures, various different approaches exist including the limited lateral approach. The aim of this systematic review was to combine the results of studies using the sinus tarsi approach, which is the most frequently applied limited lateral approach. Method: A literature search in the electronic databases of the Cochrane Library and Pubmed Medline, between January 1st 2000 to December 1st 2010, was conducted to identify studies in which the sinus tarsi approach or a modified sinus tarsi approach was utilized for the treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Coleman methodology score. Results: A total of eight case series reporting on 256 patients with 271 calcaneal fractures was identified. Overall good to excellent outcome was reached in three-quarters of all patients. An average complication rate of minor wound complications of 4.1% was reported and major wound complications in 0.7%. The need for a secondary subtalar arthrodesis occurred at an average rate of 4.3%. The average Coleman methodology score was 56.8 (range 39-72) points. Conclusion: The results, i.e. functional outcome and complication rates, of the sinus tarsi approach compare similarly or favourably to the extended lateral approach. Therefore, in the process of tailoring the best treatment modality to the right patient and the right fracture type, the sinus tarsi approach might be a valuable asset. © 2011 The Author(s).
Schepers T.,Rotterdam University
International orthopaedics | Year: 2013
Information about the influence of delayed surgery on infectious wound complications is ambiguous. A clinical audit was performed to test the hypothesis that early surgery lowers the rate of infectious wound complications. Secondly we looked at the influence of surgical delay and complications on patient reported functional outcome. All consecutive, closed distal fibular fractures treated surgically with a plate were included and retrospectively analysed for the delay in operation and wound complications. In a second cohort of patients with a AO-Weber B-type ankle fracture outcome was measured using the Olerud-Molander ankle score (OMAS), the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score (AOFAS) and a visual analog score (VAS) for overall satisfaction. Patients treated within one day experienced no wound complications (zero out of 60), whereas in the delayed group 11% (16/145) did (p = 0.004). A similar significant difference was found for the patients treated within one week (2/98) versus after one week (14/107). A systematic review of the literature showed a difference in wound complications of 3.6% (early) versus 12.9% (late) (p < 0.0001). After 43 months, the median AOFAS was 11.5 points lower in the complication group, the OMAS 10 points, and the VAS 0.5 points, with all differences being statistically significant. Every effort should be made to operate on closed ankle fractures as soon as reasonably possible. A delay in surgery is associated with a significant rise in infectious wound complications, which significantly lowers outcome and patient satisfaction. These fractures should preferably be treated within the first day.