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Kruizinga I.,Erasmus Medical Center | Jansen W.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | de Haan C.L.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | van der Ende J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) is a relatively new and short (42-item) questionnaire that measures psychosocial problems in toddlers and consists of a Problem and a Competence scale. In this study the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the BITSEA were examined for the whole group and for gender and ethnicity subgroups. Methods: Parents of 7140 two-year-old children were invited in the study, of which 3170 (44.4%) parents completed the BITSEA. For evaluation of the score distribution, the presence of floor/ceiling effects was determined. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was evaluated and in subsamples the test-retest, parent-childcare provider interrater reliability and concurrent validity with regard to the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Discriminative validity was evaluated by comparing scores of parents that worry and parents that do not worry about their child's development. Results: The BITSEA showed no floor or ceiling effects. Psychometric properties of the BITSEA Problem and Competence scale were respectively: Cronbach's alphas were 0.76 and 0.63. Test-retest correlations were 0.75 and 0.61. Interrater reliability correlations were 0.30 and 0.17. Concurrent validity was as hypothesised. The BITSEA was able to discriminate between parents that worry about their child and parents that do not worry. The psychometric properties of the BITSEA were comparable across gender and ethnic background. Conclusion: The results in this large-scale study of a diverse sample support the reliability and validity of the BITSEA Problem scale. The BITSEA Competence scale needs further study. The performance of the BITSEA appears to be similar in subgroups by gender and ethnic background. © 2012 Kruizinga et al. Source


Kruizinga I.,Erasmus Medical Center | Visser J.C.,Karakter University Center Nijmegen | Van Batenburg-Eddes T.,VU University Amsterdam | Carter A.S.,University of Massachusetts Boston | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objective: Using parent-completed questionnaires in (preventive) child health care can facilitate the early detection of psychosocial problems and psychopathology, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A promising questionnaire for this purpose is the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). The screening accuracy with regard to ASD of the BITSEA Problem and Competence scales and a newly calculated Autism score were evaluated. Method: Data, that was collected between April 2010 and April 2011, from a community sample of 2-year-olds (N = 3127), was combined with a sample of preschool children diagnosed with ASD (N = 159). For the total population and for subgroups by child's gender, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was examined, and across a range of BITSEA Problem, Competence and Autism scores, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio's, diagnostic odds ratio and Youden's index were reported. Results: The area under the ROC curve (95% confidence interval, [95%CI]) of the Problem scale was 0.90(0.87-0.92), of the Competence scale 0.93(0.91-0.95), and of the Autism score 0.95(0.93-0.97). For the total population, the screening accuracy of the Autism score was significantly better, compared to the Problem scale. The screening accuracy of the Competence scale was significantly better for girls (AUC = 0.97; 95%CI = 0.95-0.98) than for boys (AUC = 0.91; 95%CI = 0.88-0.94). Conclusion: The results indicate that the BITSEA scales and newly calculated Autism score have good discriminative power to differentiate children with and without ASD. Therefore, the BITSEA may be helpful in the early detection of ASD, which could have beneficial effects on the child's development. © 2014 Kruizinga et al. Source


Kruizinga I.,Erasmus Medical Center | Jansen W.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | Van Sprang N.C.,Public Health Care for Youth Rijnmond | Carter A.S.,University of Massachusetts Boston | Raat H.,Erasmus Medical Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective Effective early detection tools are needed in child health care to detect psychosocial problems among young children. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA), in reducing psychosocial problems at one year follow-up, compared to care as usual. Method Well-child centers in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, were allocated in a cluster randomized controlled trial to the intervention condition (BITSEA-15 centers), or to the control condition ('care-As-usual'-16 centers). Parents of 2610 2-year-old children (1,207 intervention; 1,403 control) provided informed consent and completed the baseline and 1-year follow-up questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of condition on psychosocial problems and health related quality of life (i.e. respectively Child Behavior Checklist and Infant-Toddler Quality of Life). The number of (pursuits of) referrals and acceptability of the BITSEA were also evaluated. Results Children in the intervention condition scored more favourably on the CBCL at follow-up than children in the control condition: B =-2.43 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] =-3.53;-1.33 p<0.001). There were no differences between conditions regarding ITQOL. Child health professionals reported referring fewer children in the intervention condition (n = 56, 5.7%), compared to the control condition (n = 95, 7.9%; p<0.05). There was no intervention effect on parents' reported number of referrals pursued. It took less time to complete (parents) or work with (child health professional) the BITSEA, compared to care as usual. In the control condition, 84.2%of the parents felt (very) well prepared for the well-child visit, compared to 77.9% in the intervention condition (p<0.001). Conclusion The results support the use of the BITSEA as a tool for child health professionals in the early detection of psychosocial problems in 2-year-olds. We recommend future studies in large and varied populations to replicate these findings. Copyright: © 2015 Kruizinga et al. Source


Bevaart F.,Erasmus Medical Center | Mieloo C.L.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | Mieloo C.L.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Jansen W.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2012

Background: Problem perception and perceived need for professional care are important determinants that can contribute to ethnic differences in the use of mental health care. Therefore, we studied ethnic differences in problem perception and perceived need for professional care in the parents and teachers of 5- to 6-year-old children from the general population who were selected for having emotional and behavioural problems. Methods: A cross-sectional study with data of 10,951 children from grade two of the elementary schools in the Rotterdam-Rijnmond area, the Netherlands. Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as well as questions on problem perception and perceived need for care. The SDQ was used to identify children with emotional and behavioural problems. We included Dutch, Surinamese, Antillean, Moroccan and Turkish children in our sample with high (>P90) SDQ scores (N = 1,215), who were not currently receiving professional care for their problems. Results: Amongst children with high SDQ scores, problem perception was lower in non-Dutch parents than in Dutch parents (49% vs. 81%, p < 0.01). These lower rates of problem perception could not be explained by differences in socioeconomic position or severity of the problems. No ethnic differences were found in parental perceived need and in problem perception and perceived need reported by teachers. Higher levels of problem perception and perceived need were reported by teachers than by parents in all ethnic groups (PP: 87% vs. 63% and PN: 48% vs. 23%). Conclusions: Child health professionals should be aware of ethnic variations in problem perception as low problem perception in parents of non-Dutch children may lead to miscommunication and unmet need for professional care for the child. © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Source


Mieloo C.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | Mieloo C.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Raat H.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | van Oort F.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Introduction: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a relatively short instrument developed to detect psychosocial problems in children aged 3-16 years. It addresses four dimensions: emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention problems, peer problems that count up to the total difficulties score, and a fifth dimension; prosocial behaviour. The validity and reliability of the SDQ has not been fully investigated in younger age groups. Therefore, this study assesses the validity and reliability of the parent and teacher versions of the SDQ in children aged 5-6 years in the total sample, and in subgroups according to child gender and parental education level. Methods: The SDQ was administered as part of the Dutch regularly provided preventive health check for children aged 5-6 years. Parents provided information on 4750 children and teachers on 4516 children. Results: Factor analyses of the parent and teacher SDQ confirmed that the original five scales were present (parent RMSEA = 0.05; teacher RMSEA = 0.07). Interrater correlations between parents and teachers were small (ICCs of 0.21-0.44) but comparable to what is generally found for psychosocial problem assessments in children. These correlations were larger for males than for females. Cronbach's alphas for the total difficulties score were 0.77 for the parent SDQ and 0.81 for the teacher SDQ. Four of the subscales on the parent SDQ and two of the subscales on the teacher SDQ had an alpha <0.70. Alphas were generally higher for male children and for low parental education level. Discussion: The validity and reliability of the total difficulties score of the parent and teacher SDQ are satisfactory in all groups by informant, child gender, and parental education level. Our results support the use of the SDQ in younger age groups. However, some subscales are less reliable and we recommend only to use the total difficulties score for screening purposes. © 2012 Mieloo et al. Source

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