Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond

Rotterdam, Netherlands

Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond

Rotterdam, Netherlands
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Kruizinga I.,Erasmus Medical Center | Jansen W.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | Van Sprang N.C.,Public Health Care for Youth Rijnmond | Carter A.S.,University of Massachusetts Boston | Raat H.,Erasmus Medical Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective Effective early detection tools are needed in child health care to detect psychosocial problems among young children. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA), in reducing psychosocial problems at one year follow-up, compared to care as usual. Method Well-child centers in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, were allocated in a cluster randomized controlled trial to the intervention condition (BITSEA-15 centers), or to the control condition ('care-As-usual'-16 centers). Parents of 2610 2-year-old children (1,207 intervention; 1,403 control) provided informed consent and completed the baseline and 1-year follow-up questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of condition on psychosocial problems and health related quality of life (i.e. respectively Child Behavior Checklist and Infant-Toddler Quality of Life). The number of (pursuits of) referrals and acceptability of the BITSEA were also evaluated. Results Children in the intervention condition scored more favourably on the CBCL at follow-up than children in the control condition: B =-2.43 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] =-3.53;-1.33 p<0.001). There were no differences between conditions regarding ITQOL. Child health professionals reported referring fewer children in the intervention condition (n = 56, 5.7%), compared to the control condition (n = 95, 7.9%; p<0.05). There was no intervention effect on parents' reported number of referrals pursued. It took less time to complete (parents) or work with (child health professional) the BITSEA, compared to care as usual. In the control condition, 84.2%of the parents felt (very) well prepared for the well-child visit, compared to 77.9% in the intervention condition (p<0.001). Conclusion The results support the use of the BITSEA as a tool for child health professionals in the early detection of psychosocial problems in 2-year-olds. We recommend future studies in large and varied populations to replicate these findings. Copyright: © 2015 Kruizinga et al.


PubMed | Erasmus Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Boston, Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond and Public Health Care for Youth Rijnmond
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Effective early detection tools are needed in child health care to detect psychosocial problems among young children. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA), in reducing psychosocial problems at one year follow-up, compared to care as usual.Well-child centers in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, were allocated in a cluster randomized controlled trial to the intervention condition (BITSEA--15 centers), or to the control condition (care-as-usual- 16 centers). Parents of 2610 2-year-old children (1,207 intervention; 1,403 control) provided informed consent and completed the baseline and 1-year follow-up questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of condition on psychosocial problems and health related quality of life (i.e. respectively Child Behavior Checklist and Infant-Toddler Quality of Life). The number of (pursuits of) referrals and acceptability of the BITSEA were also evaluated.Children in the intervention condition scored more favourably on the CBCL at follow-up than children in the control condition: B = -2.43 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] = -3.53; -1.33 p<0.001). There were no differences between conditions regarding ITQOL. Child health professionals reported referring fewer children in the intervention condition (n = 56, 5.7%), compared to the control condition (n = 95, 7.9%; p<0.05). There was no intervention effect on parents reported number of referrals pursued. It took less time to complete (parents) or work with (child health professional) the BITSEA, compared to care as usual. In the control condition, 84.2% of the parents felt (very) well prepared for the well-child visit, compared to 77.9% in the intervention condition (p<0.001).The results support the use of the BITSEA as a tool for child health professionals in the early detection of psychosocial problems in 2-year-olds. We recommend future studies in large and varied populations to replicate these findings.Current Controlled Trials NTR2035.


Kruizinga I.,Erasmus Medical Center | Visser J.C.,Karakter University Center Nijmegen | Van Batenburg-Eddes T.,VU University Amsterdam | Carter A.S.,University of Massachusetts Boston | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objective: Using parent-completed questionnaires in (preventive) child health care can facilitate the early detection of psychosocial problems and psychopathology, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A promising questionnaire for this purpose is the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). The screening accuracy with regard to ASD of the BITSEA Problem and Competence scales and a newly calculated Autism score were evaluated. Method: Data, that was collected between April 2010 and April 2011, from a community sample of 2-year-olds (N = 3127), was combined with a sample of preschool children diagnosed with ASD (N = 159). For the total population and for subgroups by child's gender, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was examined, and across a range of BITSEA Problem, Competence and Autism scores, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio's, diagnostic odds ratio and Youden's index were reported. Results: The area under the ROC curve (95% confidence interval, [95%CI]) of the Problem scale was 0.90(0.87-0.92), of the Competence scale 0.93(0.91-0.95), and of the Autism score 0.95(0.93-0.97). For the total population, the screening accuracy of the Autism score was significantly better, compared to the Problem scale. The screening accuracy of the Competence scale was significantly better for girls (AUC = 0.97; 95%CI = 0.95-0.98) than for boys (AUC = 0.91; 95%CI = 0.88-0.94). Conclusion: The results indicate that the BITSEA scales and newly calculated Autism score have good discriminative power to differentiate children with and without ASD. Therefore, the BITSEA may be helpful in the early detection of ASD, which could have beneficial effects on the child's development. © 2014 Kruizinga et al.


Kruizinga I.,Erasmus Medical Center | Jansen W.,Erasmus Medical Center | Jansen W.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | Mieloo C.L.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) is a promising questionnaire for the early detection of psychosocial problems in toddlers. The screening accuracy and clinical application were evaluated.Methods:In a community sample of 2-year-olds (N = 2060), screening accuracy of the BITSEA Problem scale was examined regarding a clinical CBCL1.5-5 Total Problem score. For the total population and subgroups by child's gender and ethnicity Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated, and across a range of BITSEA Problem scores, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio's, diagnostic odds ratio and Youden's index. Clinical application of the BITSEA was examined by evaluating the relation between the scale scores and the clinical decision of the child health professional.Results:The area under the ROC curve (95% confidence interval) of the Problem scale was 0.97(0.95-0.98), there were no significant differences between subgroups. The association between clinical decision and BITSEA Problem score (B = 2.5) and Competence score (B = -0.7) was significant (p<0.05).Conclusions:The results indicate that the BITSEA Problem scale has good discriminative power to differentiate children with and without psychosocial problems. Referred children had less favourable scores compared to children that were not referred. The BITSEA may be helpful in the early detection of psychosocial problems. © 2013 Kruizinga et al.


Kruizinga I.,Erasmus Medical Center | Jansen W.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | de Haan C.L.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | van der Ende J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) is a relatively new and short (42-item) questionnaire that measures psychosocial problems in toddlers and consists of a Problem and a Competence scale. In this study the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the BITSEA were examined for the whole group and for gender and ethnicity subgroups. Methods: Parents of 7140 two-year-old children were invited in the study, of which 3170 (44.4%) parents completed the BITSEA. For evaluation of the score distribution, the presence of floor/ceiling effects was determined. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was evaluated and in subsamples the test-retest, parent-childcare provider interrater reliability and concurrent validity with regard to the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Discriminative validity was evaluated by comparing scores of parents that worry and parents that do not worry about their child's development. Results: The BITSEA showed no floor or ceiling effects. Psychometric properties of the BITSEA Problem and Competence scale were respectively: Cronbach's alphas were 0.76 and 0.63. Test-retest correlations were 0.75 and 0.61. Interrater reliability correlations were 0.30 and 0.17. Concurrent validity was as hypothesised. The BITSEA was able to discriminate between parents that worry about their child and parents that do not worry. The psychometric properties of the BITSEA were comparable across gender and ethnic background. Conclusion: The results in this large-scale study of a diverse sample support the reliability and validity of the BITSEA Problem scale. The BITSEA Competence scale needs further study. The performance of the BITSEA appears to be similar in subgroups by gender and ethnic background. © 2012 Kruizinga et al.


Bevaart F.,Erasmus Medical Center | Bevaart F.,Medical Center Amsterdam | Mieloo C.L.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | Mieloo C.L.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 6 more authors.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2014

An underrepresentation of ethnic minority children in mental health care settings is consistently reported. Parents of ethnic minority children are, however, less likely to perceive problem behaviour in their children. Our hypothesis was that, as a result of ethnic differences in problem perception, referral to care by a child health professional (CHP) would be lower for 5- to 6-year-old (high-risk) children from ethnic minority backgrounds than for their peers from the ethnic majority (Dutch origin). For 10,951 children in grade two of elementary school, parents and/or teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as well as questions on problem perception (PP) and perceived need for professional care (PN). Referral information was obtained from the Electronic Child Records (ECR) for 1,034 of these children. These children had a high (>90th percentile) SDQ score, and were not receiving mental health care. CHP's referred 144 children (14 %) during the routine health assessments. A lower problem perception was reported by parents of ethnic minority children (40-72 %) than by parents of the ethnic majority group (80 %; p < 0.001), but there were no ethnic differences in referral (OR range 0.9-1.9-p > 0.05). No ethnic differences were found for parental PN, nor for teacher's PP or PN. Despite a lower problem perception in ethnic minority parents when compared to ethnic majority parents, no ethnic differences were found in referral of children with problem behaviour in a preventive health care setting. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.


Bevaart F.,Erasmus Medical Center | Mieloo C.L.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | Mieloo C.L.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Jansen W.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2012

Background: Problem perception and perceived need for professional care are important determinants that can contribute to ethnic differences in the use of mental health care. Therefore, we studied ethnic differences in problem perception and perceived need for professional care in the parents and teachers of 5- to 6-year-old children from the general population who were selected for having emotional and behavioural problems. Methods: A cross-sectional study with data of 10,951 children from grade two of the elementary schools in the Rotterdam-Rijnmond area, the Netherlands. Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as well as questions on problem perception and perceived need for care. The SDQ was used to identify children with emotional and behavioural problems. We included Dutch, Surinamese, Antillean, Moroccan and Turkish children in our sample with high (>P90) SDQ scores (N = 1,215), who were not currently receiving professional care for their problems. Results: Amongst children with high SDQ scores, problem perception was lower in non-Dutch parents than in Dutch parents (49% vs. 81%, p < 0.01). These lower rates of problem perception could not be explained by differences in socioeconomic position or severity of the problems. No ethnic differences were found in parental perceived need and in problem perception and perceived need reported by teachers. Higher levels of problem perception and perceived need were reported by teachers than by parents in all ethnic groups (PP: 87% vs. 63% and PN: 48% vs. 23%). Conclusions: Child health professionals should be aware of ethnic variations in problem perception as low problem perception in parents of non-Dutch children may lead to miscommunication and unmet need for professional care for the child. © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.


Mieloo C.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | Mieloo C.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Raat H.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | van Oort F.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Introduction: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a relatively short instrument developed to detect psychosocial problems in children aged 3-16 years. It addresses four dimensions: emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention problems, peer problems that count up to the total difficulties score, and a fifth dimension; prosocial behaviour. The validity and reliability of the SDQ has not been fully investigated in younger age groups. Therefore, this study assesses the validity and reliability of the parent and teacher versions of the SDQ in children aged 5-6 years in the total sample, and in subgroups according to child gender and parental education level. Methods: The SDQ was administered as part of the Dutch regularly provided preventive health check for children aged 5-6 years. Parents provided information on 4750 children and teachers on 4516 children. Results: Factor analyses of the parent and teacher SDQ confirmed that the original five scales were present (parent RMSEA = 0.05; teacher RMSEA = 0.07). Interrater correlations between parents and teachers were small (ICCs of 0.21-0.44) but comparable to what is generally found for psychosocial problem assessments in children. These correlations were larger for males than for females. Cronbach's alphas for the total difficulties score were 0.77 for the parent SDQ and 0.81 for the teacher SDQ. Four of the subscales on the parent SDQ and two of the subscales on the teacher SDQ had an alpha <0.70. Alphas were generally higher for male children and for low parental education level. Discussion: The validity and reliability of the total difficulties score of the parent and teacher SDQ are satisfactory in all groups by informant, child gender, and parental education level. Our results support the use of the SDQ in younger age groups. However, some subscales are less reliable and we recommend only to use the total difficulties score for screening purposes. © 2012 Mieloo et al.


Kruizinga I.,Erasmus Medical Center | Jansen W.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | de Haan C.L.,Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond | Raat H.,Erasmus Medical Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The KIPPPI (Brief Instrument Psychological and Pedagogical Problem Inventory) is a Dutch questionnaire that measures psychosocial and pedagogical problems in 2-year olds and consists of a KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale, and Autonomy scale. This study examined the reliability, validity, screening accuracy and clinical application of the KIPPPI. Methods: Parents of 5959 2-year-old children in the Rotterdam area, the Netherlands, were invited to participate in the study. Parents of 3164 children (53.1% of all invited parents) completed the questionnaire. The internal consistency was evaluated and in subsamples the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with regard to the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Discriminative validity was evaluated by comparing scores of parents who worried about their child's upbringing and parent's that did not. Screening accuracy of the KIPPPI was evaluated against the CBCL by calculating the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The clinical application was evaluated by the relation between KIPPPI scores and the clinical decision made by the child health professionals. Results: Psychometric properties of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale and Autonomy scale were respectively: Cronbach's alphas: 0.88, 0.86, 0.83, 0.58. Test-retest correlations: 0.80, 0.76, 0.73, 0.60. Concurrent validity was as hypothesised. The KIPPPI was able to discriminate between parents that worried about their child and parents that did not. Screening accuracy was high (>0.90) for the KIPPPI Total score and for the Wellbeing scale. The KIPPPI scale scores and clinical decision of the child health professional were related (p<0.05), indicating a good clinical application. Conclusion: The results in this large-scale study of a diverse general population sample support the reliability, validity and clinical application of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale and Competence scale. Also, the screening accuracy of the KIPPPI Total score and Wellbeing scale were supported. The Autonomy scale needs further study. © 2012 Kruizinga et al.


PubMed | Rotterdam Municipal Health Service GGD Rotterdam Rijnmond
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2012

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a relatively short instrument developed to detect psychosocial problems in children aged 3-16 years. It addresses four dimensions: emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention problems, peer problems that count up to the total difficulties score, and a fifth dimension; prosocial behaviour. The validity and reliability of the SDQ has not been fully investigated in younger age groups. Therefore, this study assesses the validity and reliability of the parent and teacher versions of the SDQ in children aged 5-6 years in the total sample, and in subgroups according to child gender and parental education level.The SDQ was administered as part of the Dutch regularly provided preventive health check for children aged 5-6 years. Parents provided information on 4750 children and teachers on 4516 children.Factor analyses of the parent and teacher SDQ confirmed that the original five scales were present (parent RMSEA=0.05; teacher RMSEA=0.07). Interrater correlations between parents and teachers were small (ICCs of 0.21-0.44) but comparable to what is generally found for psychosocial problem assessments in children. These correlations were larger for males than for females. Cronbachs alphas for the total difficulties score were 0.77 for the parent SDQ and 0.81 for the teacher SDQ. Four of the subscales on the parent SDQ and two of the subscales on the teacher SDQ had an alpha <0.70. Alphas were generally higher for male children and for low parental education level.The validity and reliability of the total difficulties score of the parent and teacher SDQ are satisfactory in all groups by informant, child gender, and parental education level. Our results support the use of the SDQ in younger age groups. However, some subscales are less reliable and we recommend only to use the total difficulties score for screening purposes.

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