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Janssen A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Schaffer J.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences | von Wilpert K.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg | Reif A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Waldokologie Online | Year: 2016

Since the 1980s, forest liming has been used to compensate for atmospheric inorganic acid deposited in Baden-Wurttemberg. This study evaluates existing forest liming data first compiled by the FVA Baden-Wurttemberg in 2005. We show a clear concentration of forest liming in the Black Forest, where soils on red sandstone and crystalline rock are prone to acidification. Liming has also been regularly carried out in the Keuper Uplands, the Forest of Odes and on glacial sediments of the Alpine foothills in Upper Swabia. The loamy soils of the lower moraine have experienced a particular increase in forest liming since 2005, demonstrating a shift in liming objectives towards loamy, productive sites. Evaluation of the liming data focuses on materials and techniques and the various liming emphases for the northern Black Forest and northern lower Alpine foothills. The liming documentation is based on analogous maps of the forest offices (scale: Forest districts or compartments).


Hein S.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences | Ehring A.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg | Kohnle U.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg
Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung | Year: 2014

Historically, the sweet chestnut tree [Castanea sativa Mill.] has been known as a tree species that is rich in biomass production and frequently used in coppice forests. The following investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of producing valuable timber from this species. The basis were measurements on 42 temporary plots with sweet chestnut plots in southwestern Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate, Baden-Wuerttemberg) and eastern France (Alsace) as well as six long-term experiment plots in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Fig. 1, Table 1). We measured crown diameter, height of crown base, tree height, diameter at breast height (N=409 trees) and assessed age, height and diameter growth dynamics from stem analyses of selected trees. The results show that the production of valuable timber the needs to take into account the specific growth pattern of sweet chestnut: Height growth and the associated ability to expand crowns decreases strongly from a rather young age of approx. 25 years (Fig. 2). Sweet chestnut proves rapidly self-pruning, particularly in young development stages (< 25 years). As a consequence, artificial pruning is usually not obligatory for the production of valuable timber. However, in mixed stand a combined pruning of dead and living branches may be appropriate. Production of target diameters of 60 cm at breast height (valuable timber) or diameters up to 40 cm (e.g. small diameter round wood, timber for palisades) are possible in relatively short production periods; however, intensive thinning is needed: the diameter growth decreases quickly with increasing age. At higher ages, the potential for promoting diameter growth is rather limited even through very strong thinnings (Fig. 5). Intensive thinning as early as possible is also necessary with respect to reduce the risk of timber devaluation through the chestnut blight caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica as well as ring shake. A silvicultural concept for the production of valuable timber (target diameter of 60 cm) accomodating the species-specific growth dynamics of sweet chestnut will require spacing to allow adequate extension of the crowns at rather early stages (dominant height of approx. 12 m) in order to exploite fully the site-specific diameter growth potential. Working with consequently released and more or less equally spaced ca. 60-80 crop trees per hectare, knot-free valuable timber can be produced in periods of about 60 years.


Metzner J.,Deutscher Verband fur Landschaftspflege e.V. DVL | Jedicke E.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Luick R.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences | Reisinger E.,Thuringer Landesanstalt fur Umwelt und Geologie TLUG | Tischew S.,Anhalt University of Applied Sciences
Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung | Year: 2010

The near-natural pasturing of our cultural landscape stands for a modern, multi-functional agriculture. Many farms with grazing animals have an important share in effectively implementing the European challenges to protect biological diversity, climate and water. The subsequent paper - supported by numerous associations - makes proposals for a better establishment of extensive grazing in the funding guidelines of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the EU after 2013. Existing instruments are to be advanced in the following areas: On extensively grazed grasslands it should in future be possible to generally activate payment claims of the 1 st column, and to combine them with aid programmes of the 2nd column. In order to reduce the risks of reclaims for the applicants the sites are to be identified by a specific code with an "integrated administration and control system", and the implementation of the measures is to be controlled according to nature conservation criteria. In the context of the 2 nd column the study recommends the expansion of agri-environmental measures - including better co-financing by the EU, additional incentives and contract periods of up to 20 years. Additionally landscape management programmes have to be established on the basis of the Regulation of the EAFRD (Art. 57) - including invested-related measures which are not covered by agri-environmental schemes. The comprehensive counselling of the farms aims to promote a better integration of extensive grazing, ensuring the optimal combination of measures of the 1 st and 2 nd column. The study recommends the following measures which are particularly eligible: (a) extensive all-year continuous grazing with cattle and horses, (b) conversion of arable fields into extensively grazed grasslands in flood areas and on fen soils, and (c) biotope management with sheep and goats.


Debates on New Wilderness in the Northern Black Forest - How to better not argue against a planned national park The positions on the designation of national parks in Germany differ significantly depending on motivation and concernment. However, there is a decisive difference between the presentation of particular interests on the one hand and scientific analyses on the other. The latter have to be objective, must base on all substantial facts, and they have to point out causal chains and coherences in a holistic sense; most of all their interpretations have to be unprejudiced. Only in this way a base of knowledge and understanding can be developed allowing serious conclusions and finally political decisions. As a contrast publications or reports which depict the preconceived opinions of a lobby group are difficult. Frequently it is possible to identify sets of arguments which are presented in the shape of well-founded knowledge. Their closer examination however reveals factually inaccurate or scientifically untenable assumptions. The problems increase if dubious scientific justifications are mixed up with correctly reproduced information. The abuse of scientific work as polical lever has become in great demand, particularly in the context of controversial aims and objects; this is also true for the current dispute about the planned national park Northern Black Forest. The paper has assembled the most important wrong sets of arguments, both of ecology and nature conservation, and it points out false conclusions.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2013-2 | Award Amount: 2.94M | Year: 2013

Existing test standards for biomass room heating appliances (pellet and firewood stoves, and inset appliances) have supported technology development tremendously in past decades. Due to todays changing and more demanding requirements, however, there is the obvious need for refined testing procedures in order to differentiate between poor and excellent products. Such differentiation should take into account operating conditions as they are found in real life installations. Offering such information to customers will create substantial competitive advantages to innovative SMEs providing high quality products and may provide a reliable guideline for future standards or regulations. The key objectives of BeReal are - Development of advanced testing methods for room biomass heating appliances to better reflect real life operation - Development of a centralized standard evaluation tool for quality assurance purposes - Validation of methods at an early stage of development - Proof of real life impact of advanced products by field test demonstration - Proof of reliability and reproducibility of testing methods and evaluation tools through a Round Robin test - Development and introduction of a quality label based on the novel testing methods These are accompanied by dissemination activities addressing standardization bodies, SME-members of participating SME-AGs and notified bodies, including training activities for the latter two groups. The introduction of the quality label addresses end users and general public. The consortium consists of 2 national and 1 European SME-AG, 7 OTHER participants (3 SME stove manufacturers, 1 SME component supplier, 1 SME certification supplier, 2 large industry stove manufacturers) and 5 RTDs of high international reputation. SME-AGs will be supported by their members. 3 participants are notified bodies, several participants are involved in leading positions in concerned standardization groups, amongst others in CEN TC295 WG5 and in CEN TC46. Additional stakeholders are involved in an Advisory Committee.


Luick R.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences | Jedicke E.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Metzner J.,Deutscher Verband fur Landschaftspflege e.V. DVL
Natur und Landschaft | Year: 2015

Extensive grasslands, and thus also many extensive pastures, exhibit a rapid decline in distribution and also in quality across most of Europe, despite existing legal obligations for conservation. The reasons for such decline are manifold; they include a lack of appreciation among agricultural stakeholders and insufficient or absent support measures. Furthermore, existing programmes are often difficult to handle by practitioners. There have been many efforts to influence the design of the new European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and to integrate an improved framework for extensively operating livestock keepers. But it now has to be stated that such initiatives have failed. The paper highlights the present status of the CAP with respect to grazing issues and examines how the new CAP is implemented in the German federal states (Länder).


Thorn S.,Sachgebiet Forschung und Dokumentation | Bassler C.,Sachgebiet Forschung und Dokumentation | Gottschalk T.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences | Hothorn T.,University of Zürich | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Windthrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models) as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green-tree retention approach to windthrown trees will preserve natural succession and associated communities of disturbed spruce forests. © 2014 Thorn et al.


Gottschalk T.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences | Kover L.,Debrecen University
Vogelwarte | Year: 2016

In 2014,7.2 % of Germany's territory was used for the cultivation of maize. Several studies have shown that maize fields are of minor importance for breeding bird species. The value of maize fields as a habitat for birds has rarely been investigated during summer and autumn. Mist-net data were obtained using 15 nets in a maize field near Gießen, Germany during 44 days between July and October 2012. The aim of the study was to identify (a) the number of bird species and individuals resting in a maize field, (b) the time and duration of their stay and (c) vertical and spatial distribution of bird species during the post-breeding season. In total, 1,019 birds out of 35 species were trapped. The most frequently caught birds were Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) and Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus). The number of all caught birds showed significant differences between mist net positions and within vertical height. The distance between field edges and mist nets had no effect on capture rates of birds with the exception of the Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita). Numbers of caught Chiffchaffs decreased with increasing distances to the field edge. Individuals of 14 species have been recaptured after a median of six days, which might imply that they used the maize field for a longer time. Capture rates remained almost constant until August and, caused by an increase of migratory birds, increased continuously by the beginning of October. Although capture rates in maize were lower compared to reed beds and different wooded areas, the number of birds caught implies that a high number of bird species find sufficient resources in maize during summer and autumn. Further investigations are needed to identify the importance of maize as a habitat for birds, especially in comparison to other arable crops or fallow. © DO-G, IfV, MPG 2016.


Bioenergy is the main pillar of renewable energies in Germany. This applies equally at European and global level. Biomass use for energy production is intended to substitute fossil energy, is motivated by climate change mitigation objectives, receives significant governmental promotion and exhibits impressive technological dynamics. However, the increasing demand and the low energy density per volume results in the use of large areas and is associated with considerable negative environmental impacts such as intensification and land-use change. Sustainable bioenergy use needs clearly defined standards for environmental, conservation and social objectives. First moves towards benchmarking such standards are defined by the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive (RED) but are only valid for liquid biomass so far. They should be amended and augmented for solid biomass as well.


Megerle H.E.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences
Geographische Rundschau | Year: 2010

Baden-Württemberg shows a great variety of different implementation strategies in establishing metropolitan regions. The examples include the oldest and the youngest generation as well as the first tri-national approach. French and Swiss metropolitan regions influence border areas. Planning theory and planning practice show considerable differences. The metropolitan region of Stuttgart, long-time regarded as prototype for innovative regional cooperation, faced a spatial extension and new governance structures, following tedious discussions with the adjoining regions. The Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region, by contrast, hopes to prevail as a ; model for regional development, due to its congruence of delimitation and responsibility. At present planning policy is demanded to create a workable scheme for the large-scale areas of responsibility to reduce the fear of rural regions to be marginalised.

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