Rotman Research Institute

Rotman, Canada

Rotman Research Institute

Rotman, Canada

Time filter

Source Type

University of Toronto and Baycrest Rotman Research Institute (RRI) scientists have discovered a potential brain imaging predictor for dementia, which illustrates that changes to the brain's structure may occur years prior to a diagnosis, even before individuals notice their own memory problems. The joint study, published in the Neurobiology of Aging on May 8, looked at older adults who are living in the Toronto community without assistance and who were unaware of any major memory problems, but scored below the normal benchmark on a dementia screening test. Within these older adults, researchers also found evidence of less brain tissue in the same subregion of the brain where Alzheimer's disease originates (the anterolateral entorhinal cortex located in the brain's temporal lobe). This U of T-Baycrest study is the first to measure this particular brain subregion in older adults who do not have a dementia diagnosis or memory problems that affect their day-to-day routine. It is also the first study to demonstrate that performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) dementia screening test is linked to the volume (size) of this subregion, along with other brain regions affected early in the course of Alzheimer's disease. "This work is an important first step in determining a procedure to identify older adults living independently at home without memory complaints who are at risk for dementia," says Dr. Morgan Barense of U of T's Department of Psychology and senior author on the study. The team studied 40 adults between the ages of 59 and 81 who live independently (or with a spouse) at home. All participants were tested on the MoCA. Those scoring below 26 - a score that indicates a potential problem in memory and thinking skills and suggests further dementia screening is needed - were compared to those scoring 26 and above. "The early detection of these at-risk individuals has the potential to facilitate drug developments or other therapeutic interventions for Alzheimer's disease," says Dr. Rosanna Olsen, first author on the study, RRI scientist and assistant professor in U of T's Department of Psychology. "This research also adds to our basic understanding of aging and the early mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease." Scientists were able to reliably measure the volume of the anterolateral entorhinal cortex by using high-resolution brain scans that were collected for each participant. The strongest volume differences were found in the exact regions of the brain in which Alzheimer's disease originates. The researchers are planning a follow-up study to determine whether the individuals who demonstrated poor thinking and memory abilities and smaller brain volumes indeed go on to develop dementia. "The MoCA is good at diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (a condition that is likely to develop into Alzheimer's) and we are seeing that it may identify MCI in people who are not aware of a decline in their memory and thinking skills," said Dr. Barense. Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative illness with widespread personal, societal and economic consequences. Currently, 564,000 Canadians currently live with dementia and 1.1 million Canadians are affected by the disease, according to the Alzheimer Society of Canada. There are 25,000 new cases of dementia diagnosed every year in Canada and it costs $10.4 billion to care for those living with dementia. "A key take-away from the study is that it highlights the utility of the MoCA test in identifying individuals who are at-risk for dementia," said Dr. Olsen. Adults who are 40+ and interested in testing their memory and attention prior to raising concerns with their doctor can consult Baycrest's scientifically-validated, online brain health assessment tool, Cogniciti at http://www. . Research for this study was conducted with support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Canada Research Chairs program, the James S McDonnell Foundation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, and an Early Researcher Award from the Ontario Government. The research team included RRI senior scientist Dr. Jennifer Ryan, former RRI post-doctoral fellow, Dr. Maria D'Angelo, and graduate students, Lok-Kin Yeung, Alix Noly-Gandon, and research assistants, Arber Kacollja and Victoria Smith. Established in 1827, the University of Toronto is Canada's largest university, recognized as a global leader in research and teaching. The university consistently ranks among the top 25 universities in the world. Its distinguished faculty, institutional record of ground-breaking scholarship and wealth of innovative academic opportunities continually attract outstanding academics and students from around the world. Baycrest Health Sciences is a global leader in geriatric residential living, healthcare, research, innovation and education, with a special focus on brain health and aging. Fully affiliated with the University of Toronto, Baycrest provides excellent care for older adults combined with an extensive clinical training program for the next generation of healthcare professionals and one of the world's top research institutes in cognitive neuroscience, the Rotman Research Institute. Baycrest is home to the federally and provincially-funded Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation, a solution accelerator focused on driving innovation in the aging and brain health sector, and is the developer of Cogniciti - a free online memory assessment for Canadians 40+ who are concerned about their memory. Founded in 1918 as the Jewish Home for Aged, Baycrest continues to embrace the long-standing tradition of all great Jewish healthcare institutions to improve the well-being of people in their local communities and around the globe. For more information please visit: http://www. The Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest Health Sciences is a premier international centre for the study of human brain function. Through generous support from private donors and funding agencies, the institute is helping to illuminate the causes of cognitive decline in seniors, identify promising approaches to treatment, and lifestyle practices that will protect brain health longer in the lifespan.


London Kaye, Steven Nederveen, Zombie Boy and Kara Ross among artists confirmed to participate in a large scale public art installation returning to Toronto in July 2017 ​​The TELUS Health Brain Project, is back by popular demand this summer with another exciting public art initiative showcasing A-list artists including: London Kaye, Steven Nederveen, Zombie Boy and Kara Ross among many others. The project aims to surpass the $1.3 million raised in 2016 supporting brain research, care, education and innovation at Baycrest Health Sciences, a leader in the field of aging and brain health. The 2017 collection will feature 100 brain sculptures, designed by a talented group of artists, celebrities and thought-leaders from across North America from July 11 – August 31. The brain sculptures will be on display throughout the summer at locations in the heart of downtown Toronto including the city’s iconic Nathan Phillips Square, The Distillery District, Brookfield Place, Union Station and other popular landmarks. "We’re thrilled to be working with an incredible group of artists and corporate partners for the second year of The TELUS Health Brain Project,” said Josh Cooper, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Baycrest Foundation. “We’re looking forward to expanding on the important work that was done last year to get the entire city – and beyond – thinking about brain health. It’s a cause that should matter to everyone and the funds raised will support care and research at Baycrest.” Thanks to the support of title sponsor, TELUS Health, and media partners: Cineplex Entertainment, Clear Channel Canada and The National Post, the 2017 program builds on last year’s success driving awareness for brain health. “Baycrest’s innovative approach to rethinking brain health and vision of a world in which people can age in the setting of their choice inspired our commitment to support this important cause,” said Juggy Sihota, Vice-president, Consumer Health, TELUS Health. “Through our shared vision of creating better health outcomes, we are building stronger, heathier and more sustainable communities by putting brain health top of mind for thousands of Canadians.” The more than 100 personalities, artists, and creative minds that are involved in the creation of a brain sculpture this year, include: In celebration of #Canada150, a selection of high-profile Canadian personalities will also be contributing their creative talent, including renowned news anchor Peter Mansbridge, JUNO-award winner John Mann and Stanley Cup winner Wayne Gretzky. The Brain Project’s supportive leadership continues this year with prominent co-chairs Ben and Jessica Mulroney and Noah and Erica Godfrey. The Brain Project’s co-chairs and committee members are thrilled to be working with global ambassador, actress Sarah Rafferty, as well as notable established art experts to curate this year’s incredible collections of brain sculptures. The curatorial team includes: Sandra Ainsley (owner of Sandra Ainsley Gallery), Sabrina Hahn (Founder & Principal, Hahn Fine Art) and Alissa Sexton (Co-Director, Bau-Xi Gallery). This year’s sculptures will push artistic boundaries, showcasing bold designs, with emerging and established artists working in the medium of their choice. A major city-wide ad campaign will support the program, featuring a series of innovative out-of-home placements. About the Baycrest Foundation The Baycrest Foundation’s mission is to enrich the quality of life of our community by supporting programs and services that promote excellence in care, research, education and innovation in the field of aging. As the fundraising arm of Baycrest Health Sciences, the Foundation helps provide crucial funding for breakthrough research into cognition, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, stroke and aging brain health; medical programs and services for seniors living in our community; and education that supports healthy aging and healthcare solutions for a growing senior population. About Baycrest Health Sciences Baycrest Health Sciences is a global leader in geriatric residential living, healthcare, research, innovation and education, with a special focus on brain health and aging. Fully affiliated with the University of Toronto, Baycrest provides excellent care for older adults combined with an extensive clinical training program for the next generation of healthcare professionals and one of the world’s top research institutes in cognitive neuroscience, the Rotman Research Institute. Baycrest is home to the federally and provincially-funded Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation, a solution accelerator focused on driving innovation in the aging and brain health sector, and is the developer of Cogniciti – a free online memory assessment for Canadians 40+ who are concerned about their memory.  Founded in 1918 as the Jewish Home for Aged, Baycrest continues to embrace the long-standing tradition of all great Jewish healthcare institutions to improve the well-being of people in their local communities and around the globe. For more information please visit: http://www.baycrest.org/. About TELUS Health TELUS Health is a leader in telehomecare, electronic medical and health records, consumer health, benefits management, and pharmacy management. TELUS Health solutions give health authorities, providers, physicians, patients, and consumers the power to turn information into better health outcomes. For more information about TELUS Health, please visit telushealth.com. For more information, interview requests or high-resolution photography, please contact:     Courtney Khimji Chimera Collective courtney@chimera-collective.com 416-557-1852 For sponsorship information or to get involved in The Brain Project, please contact:


News Article | May 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Dr. Randy McIntosh, Vice President of Research at Baycrest and Director of the Rotman Research Institute (RRI), was recognized for outstanding innovation through his work leading the Virtual Brain Project, an international collaboration to develop the world's first integrated computer model of a fully functioning human brain. The ORION Leadership Innovation Award, awarded at the Think: Open conference on May 24, 2017, recognizes individuals who have demonstrated leadership with outcomes that serve to advance the research, education and innovation landscape in Ontario. The Virtual Brain is being developed to help clinicians detect different types of dementia and brain diseases earlier, and provide the ability to test potential treatments before prescribing them to patients. The platform was built by an international team led by Baycrest and involves researchers from 12 sites across three continents. Recently, their work was able to predict how epileptic seizures start and spread within the brain, which could help doctors identify where to intervene during surgery, reducing the risk of adverse events. The unique brain-mapping and modeling platform captures intricate details of the brain's structure and function through the collection of imaging data. "It's an honour to receive this award on behalf of our international team," says Dr. McIntosh, who is also a psychology professor at the University of Toronto. "This award reinforces how invaluable seamless and secure 'big data' collaborations are to cutting-edge research. It has allowed Baycrest to take the lead in brain health innovations that strive to improve patient care." Dr. McIntosh's team is focused on using the Virtual Brain to create comparable simulations for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, while exploring potential partnership opportunities to encourage the platform's adoption in the clinical realm. "This award recognizes the importance of global research collaborations, such as the Virtual Brain, to provide treatment and find a cure for dementia and other brain disorders," says Baycrest President and CEO Dr. William Reichman. "As a global leader in brain health and aging research, Baycrest is proud to lead scientific efforts that will one day relieve the burden of illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease." ORION is a not-for-profit organization committed to actively supporting Ontario's researchers, educators and innovators. Baycrest Health Sciences is a global leader in geriatric residential living, healthcare, research, innovation and education, with a special focus on brain health and aging. Fully affiliated with the University of Toronto, Baycrest provides excellent care for older adults combined with an extensive clinical training program for the next generation of healthcare professionals and one of the world's top research institutes in cognitive neuroscience, the Rotman Research Institute. Baycrest is home to the federally and provincially-funded Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation, a solution accelerator focused on driving innovation in the aging and brain health sector, and is the developer of Cogniciti - a free online memory assessment for Canadians 40+ who are concerned about their memory. Founded in 1918 as the Jewish Home for Aged, Baycrest continues to embrace the long-standing tradition of all great Jewish healthcare institutions to improve the well-being of people in their local communities and around the globe. For more information please visit: http://www. The Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest Health Sciences is a premier international centre for the study of human brain function. Through generous support from private donors and funding agencies, the institute is helping to illuminate the causes of cognitive decline in seniors, identify promising approaches to treatment, and lifestyle practices that will protect brain health longer in the lifespan.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A Baycrest Health Sciences researcher and clinician has developed the first group language intervention that helps individuals losing the ability to speak due to a rare form of dementia, and could help patients maintain their communication abilities for longer. Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a unique language disorder that involves struggles with incorrect word substitutions, mispronounced words and/or difficulty understanding simple words and forgetting names of familiar objects and people. With PPA, language function declines before the memory systems, which is the opposite of Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Regina Jokel, a speech-language pathologist at Baycrest's Sam and Ida Ross Memory Clinic and a clinician-scientist with the Rotman Research Institute (RRI), has developed the first structured group intervention for PPA patients and their caregivers. This intervention could also help treat patients with other communication problems, such as mild cognitive impairment (a condition that is likely to develop into Alzheimer's). The results of her pilot program were published in the Journal of Communication Disorders on April 14, 2017. "This research aims to address the needs of one of the most underserviced populations in language disorders," says Dr. Jokel. "Individuals with PPA are often referred to either Alzheimer's programs or aphasia centres. Neither option is appropriate in this case, which often leaves individuals with PPA adrift in our health care system. Our group intervention has the potential to fill the existing void and reduce demands on numerous other health services." Language rehabilitation has made headway in managing the disorder, but there are limited PPA treatment options, adds Dr. Jokel. Dr. Jokel is one of the few researchers in the world studying this disease. She was motivated to acquire her PhD. and devise the intervention after encountering her first PPA patient more than 25 years ago. "When I realized the patient had PPA, I ran to the rehabilitation literature thinking that he needed to start some sort of therapy. I ran a search and came up with nothing. Absolutely nothing," says Jokel. "That's when I thought, 'It's time to design something.'" The 10-week intervention included working on language activities, learning communication strategies and receiving counselling and education for both patients and their caregivers. During the pilot program, patients either improved or remained unchanged on communication assessments for adults with communication disorders. Their caregivers also reported being better prepared to manage psychosocial issues and communication challenges and had more knowledge of PPA and the disease's progression. "In progressive disorders, any sign of maintaining current level of function should be interpreted as success," says Dr. Jokel. "Slowing the progression and maintenance of communication abilities should be the most important goal." For the study's next steps, Dr. Jokel has received support from a Brain Canada-Alzheimer's Association partnership grant to assess the therapy's impact on the language skills of PPA patients. With support from the Ontario Brain Institute, she is also collaborating with RRI brain rehabilitation scientist, Dr. Jed Meltzer, to explore the effect of brain stimulation on patients also undergoing language therapy. Baycrest Health Sciences is a global leader in geriatric residential living, healthcare, research, innovation and education, with a special focus on brain health and aging. Fully affiliated with the University of Toronto, Baycrest provides excellent care for older adults combined with an extensive clinical training program for the next generation of healthcare professionals and one of the world's top research institutes in cognitive neuroscience, the Rotman Research Institute. Baycrest is home to the federally and provincially-funded Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation, a solution accelerator focused on driving innovation in the aging and brain health sector, and is the developer of Cogniciti - a free online memory assessment for Canadians 40+ who are concerned about their memory. Through its dedicated centres, the organization offers unmatched global knowledge exchange and commercialization capacity. Founded in 1918 as the Jewish Home for Aged, Baycrest continues to embrace the long-standing tradition of all great Jewish healthcare institutions to improve the well-being of people in their local communities and around the globe. For more information please visit: http://www. The Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest Health Sciences is a premier international centre for the study of human brain function. Through generous support from private donors and funding agencies, the institute is helping to illuminate the causes of cognitive decline in seniors, identify promising approaches to treatment, and lifestyle practices that will protect brain health longer in the lifespan.


News Article | June 29, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Baycrest Health Sciences has teamed up with Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA), Ontario to assess the country's first multilingual, group program centered on evidence-based, talk therapy principles for older adult caregivers. CMHA Ontario's Living Life to the Full initiative offers a free, eight-week course to help unpaid caregivers aged 55+ self-manage their stress and cope with challenges in their lives. The program, which is delivered in four languages (English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese) across 36 sites across Toronto, aims to improve the mental well-being of caregivers while providing a cost-effective, scalable treatment option for those in need. Since the program began in 2015, more than 275 caregivers looking after loved ones experiencing health changes due to aging, Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, depression and physical impairments have participated in one of 27 courses delivered across Toronto. "Older adult caregivers are at an increased risk of developing anxiety and depression, which if left untreated doubles their risk of developing dementia later on," says Dr. Nasreen Khatri, principal investigator on the study and a clinician scientist with Baycrest's Rotman Research Institute. "Yet, caregivers are unlikely to seek treatment because they lack the time, resources or feel stigmatized. This program advocates for caregivers by shining a light on their issues and providing care where they live - in communities across Southern Ontario." Participants in Living Life to the Full attend eight weekly, 90-minute, interactive group sessions with a trained facilitator. Facilitators use small group activities, discussion, course booklets and worksheets to coach attendees on strategies that will help them manage negative feelings, tackle their problems and achieve their goals. "Life's challenges can appear immense and difficult to overcome, particularly if you're responsible for the care and wellbeing of a loved one," said Camille Quenneville, CEO of CMHA Ontario. "This program has been found to help participants address their own wellbeing as it teaches, using simple methods, skills to overcome worry and hopelessness." The program continues to invite all caregivers aged 55+ living in Toronto to participate. For program locations and to find out more, visit http://www. or call 416-977-5580 ext. 4135. The Living Life to the Full initiative is supported by the Government of Canada's New Horizons for Seniors Program, the Association of Ontario Health Centres, Health Nexus, the Older Adult Centres' Association of Ontario and Toronto Community Housing. Additional funding would allow the program to be offered in additional communities, languages and through remote access technology, such as on-line resources. Baycrest Health Sciences is a global leader in geriatric residential living, healthcare, research, innovation and education, with a special focus on brain health and aging. Fully affiliated with the University of Toronto, Baycrest provides excellent care for older adults combined with an extensive clinical training program for the next generation of healthcare professionals and one of the world's top research institutes in cognitive neuroscience, the Rotman Research Institute. Baycrest is home to the federally and provincially-funded Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation, a solution accelerator focused on driving innovation in the aging and brain health sector, and is the developer of Cogniciti - a free online memory assessment for Canadians 40+ who are concerned about their memory. Founded in 1918 as the Jewish Home for Aged, Baycrest continues to embrace the long-standing tradition of all great Jewish healthcare institutions to improve the well-being of people in their local communities and around the globe. For more information please visit: http://www. . The Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest Health Sciences is a premier international centre for the study of human brain function. Through generous support from private donors and funding agencies, the institute is helping to illuminate the causes of cognitive decline in seniors, identify promising approaches to treatment, and lifestyle practices that will protect brain health longer in the lifespan. The Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) works toward a single mission: to make mental health possible for all. The vision of CMHA Ontario is a society that believes mental health is the key to well-being. CMHA Ontario works closely with 30 local branches in communities across the province to ensure the quality delivery of services in the areas of mental health, addictions, dual diagnosis and concurrent disorders. Through policy formulation, analysis and implementation, agenda setting, research, evaluation and knowledge exchange, we work to improve the lives of people with mental health and addictions conditions and their families.


News Article | July 20, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Telerehabilitation helps healthcare professionals reach more patients in need, but some worry it doesn't offer the same quality of care as in-person treatment. This isn't the case, according to recent research by Baycrest Telerehabilitation helps healthcare professionals reach more patients in need, but some worry it doesn't offer the same quality of care as in-person treatment. This isn't the case, according to recent research by Baycrest. The study, published in the journal Aphasiology, found that patients who accessed speech language therapy over the Internet saw large improvements to their communication abilities that were similar to those of patients doing in-person therapy. This finding encourages greater adoption of telerehabilitation to treat patients living in remote communities who are recovering from post-stroke communication disorders as a way to improve the use of limited healthcare resources. "People with communication disorders, such as aphasia, are often provided with therapy only for the first few months after they have been diagnosed, despite evidence that therapy can benefit them for years," says Dr. Jed Meltzer, lead author and neurorehabilitation scientist at Baycrest's Rotman Research Institute. "Location can limit a patient's access to a speech-language pathologist, especially for individuals living in rural areas. Our study shows that telerehabilitation can remove this geographic barrier since participants saw similar recovery results." Despite these comparable improvements, an unexpected finding was that patients who did telerehabilitation therapy weren't as confident in their communication abilities compared to those who did in-person treatment. "Low confidence can lead to continued isolation and it is important that patients be encouraged to find other ways to socially engage with others beyond their therapy," says Dr. Meltzer. Based on the study's findings, Dr. Meltzer suggests that speech-language pathologists continue to play a critical role in the creation and supervision of treatment for patients and computer-based or tablet-based applications can help handle day-to-day treatment exercises. The study analyzed the recovery of 44 patients who had a communication disorder caused by a stroke at least six months prior to recruitment. All patients received an in-person assessment and participated in a language skills test in the first week of therapy. They were then assigned either telerehabilitation or in-person treatment for 10 weeks. Once treatment was completed, each patient completed a language skills test and a questionnaire. Their partners also provided feedback about the patient's recovery. As the only Ontario hospital offering one of the few clinically validated, gold standard telerehabilitation programs for Parkinson's patients, the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT®) eLOUD Clinic, offering telerehabilitation services at Baycrest allows clinicians to help more patients. "Older adults may face mobility issues and have a difficult time travelling to a specific location for treatment," says Maria Piccini, a Baycrest speech-language pathologist who runs the LSVT® Clinic. "Telerehabilitation makes it easier for these individuals to access the therapy they need and improves their chances of completing the treatment." These findings support Dr. Meltzer's next steps which involve combining telerehabilitation technology with other therapies, such as medication or brain stimulation, to explore ways to provide more efficient treatment to patients. This research was conducted with support from the Heart and Stroke Foundation Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, the Manitoba Patient Access Network, Speechworks Inc. and Lingraphica Inc. which covered recruitment costs and provided patients access to a speech-language pathologist, telehealth equipment, technology that participants used to complete homework and aphasia treatment software. Additional funding could support the creation of new language rehabilitation software to help patients practice at home. Baycrest Health Sciences is a global leader in geriatric residential living, healthcare, research, innovation and education, with a special focus on brain health and aging. Fully affiliated with the University of Toronto, Baycrest provides excellent care for older adults combined with an extensive clinical training program for the next generation of healthcare professionals and one of the world's top research institutes in cognitive neuroscience, the Rotman Research Institute. Baycrest is home to the federally and provincially-funded Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation, a solution accelerator focused on driving innovation in the aging and brain health sector, and is the developer of Cogniciti -- a free online memory assessment for Canadians 40+ who are concerned about their memory. Founded in 1918 as the Jewish Home for Aged, Baycrest continues to embrace the long-standing tradition of all great Jewish healthcare institutions to improve the well-being of people in their local communities and around the globe. For more information please visit: http://www. The Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest Health Sciences is a premier international centre for the study of human brain function. Through generous support from private donors and funding agencies, the institute is helping to illuminate the causes of cognitive decline in seniors, identify promising approaches to treatment, and lifestyle practices that will protect brain health longer in the lifespan.


Trainor L.J.,McMaster University | Trainor L.J.,Rotman Research Institute
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Whether music was an evolutionary adaptation that conferred survival advantages or a cultural creation has generated much debate. Consistent with an evolutionary hypothesis, music is unique to humans, emerges early in development and is universal across societies. However, the adaptive benefit of music is far from obvious. Music is highly flexible, generative and changes rapidly over time, consistent with a cultural creation hypothesis. In this paper, it is proposed that much of musical pitch and timing structure adapted to preexisting features of auditory processing that evolved for auditory scene analysis (ASA). Thus, music may have emerged initially as a cultural creation made possible by preexisting adaptations for ASA. However, some aspects of music, such as its emotional and social power, may have subsequently proved beneficial for survival and led to adaptations that enhanced musical behaviour. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic evidence is considered in this regard. In particular, enhanced auditory–motor pathways in humans that enable movement entrainment  to music and consequent increases in social cohesion, and pathways enabling music to affect  reward centres in the brain should be investigated as possible musical adaptations. It is concluded that the origins of music are complex and probably involved exaptation, cultural  creation and evolutionary adaptation. © 2015 The Authors.


Paus T.,Rotman Research Institute
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2013

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This review provides a conceptual framework for the study of factors - in our genes and environment - that shape the adolescent brain. I start by pointing out that brain phenotypes obtained with magnetic resonance imaging are complex traits reflecting the interplay of genes and the environment. In some cases, variations in the structural phenotypes observed during adolescence have their origin in the pre-natal or early post-natal periods. I then emphasize the bidirectional nature of brain-behavior relationships observed during this period of human development, where function may be more likely to influence structure rather than vice versa. In the main part of this article, I review our ongoing work on the influence of gonadal hormones on the adolescent brain. I also discuss the importance of social context and brain plasticity on shaping the relevant neural circuits. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Stuss D.T.,Rotman Research Institute
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Year: 2011

Proceeding from the assumptions that specific frontal regions control discrete functions and that very basic cognitive processes can be systematically manipulated to reveal those functions, recent reports have demonstrated consistent anatomical/functional relationships: dorsomedial for energization, left dorsolateral for task setting, and right dorsolateral for monitoring. There is no central executive. There are, instead, numerous domain general processes discretely distributed across several frontal regions that act in concert to accomplish control. Beyond these functions, there are two additional "frontal" anatomical/functional relationships: ventral-medial/orbital for emotional and behavioral regulation, and frontopolar for integrative-even meta-cognitive-functions. © 2011 The International Neuropsychological Society.


Stuss D.T.,Rotman Research Institute
Current Opinion in Neurology | Year: 2011

Purpose of Review: This review examines the applicability of a framework of frontal lobe functioning to understand the sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent Findings: TBI research illustrates the need for improved phenotyping of TBI outcome. The functions of the frontal lobes are divisible into four distinct anatomically discrete categories: executive functions, speed of processing, personality changes, and problems with empathy and social cognition. Research on the outcome after TBI demonstrates several different types of impairment that map onto this framework. Summary: TBI predominantly causes damage to the frontal/temporal regions, regardless of the pathophysiology. Limiting the spotlight to the frontal lobes, a model is presented describing four separate general categories of functions within the frontal lobes, with specific types of processes within each category. A selective review of TBI literature supports the importance of evaluating TBI patients with this framework in mind. In addition, there is growing evidence that rehabilitation of TBI patients must consider this broader approach to direct rehabilitation efforts and improve outcome. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Loading Rotman Research Institute collaborators
Loading Rotman Research Institute collaborators