News Article | February 16, 2017
TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - February 16, 2017) - The Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation (CC-ABHI) announced today the launch of its Researcher-Clinician Partnership Program (RCP2). This program is uniquely designed to greatly enhance the effectiveness of connecting point-of-care clinicians in the senior care sector with university-based researchers to collaboratively design, test and validate innovative products, services or health practices in aging and brain health in a real-world care setting. In total, up to CAD $2.4 million in funding will be available. RCP2 is seeking applicants with innovations that aim to find solutions for the following care priorities, of which the first three are aimed at older adults with dementia: "The Government of Canada is proud to support the Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation and its programs. These programs encourage partnerships to bring innovative new ideas and creative solutions in brain health and cognitive fitness to Canadians. Their work to improve the quality of life for those living with dementia, and for their caregivers, is a priority for our government," says the Honourable Jane Philpott, Canada's Minister of Health. "The collaborations being created through the Researcher-Clinician Partnership Program will help accelerate creative solutions in aging and brain health, and we are proud to support this initiative. Our government remains committed to finding new ways to continue to improve the quality of life for seniors in Ontario, and fostering innovative developments in brain health is an important part of that commitment," says the Honourable Reza Moridi, Ontario's Minister of Research, Innovation and Science. "The Researcher-Clinician Partnership Program will provide a significant opportunity for health professionals who are working collaboratively to secure the support needed to test, refine and validate their innovative solutions with the aging population in a real-world setting," says Dr. William Reichman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Baycrest Health Sciences, which leads CC-ABHI. Health professionals applying for the program must be part of a team that includes at least one researcher and one clinician. Teams may also include additional clinicians, researchers, educators, industry partners and end-users located worldwide. Applicants must demonstrate that their product, service or health practice is at an advanced stage of development as defined in the Call for Innovations. Teams must demonstrate that the proposed solution has the potential to be scaled across multiple organizations in North America and is ready for pilot testing and evaluation. CC-ABHI will support project costs that are directly associated with the trial of an innovative solution, to a maximum of CAD $600,000 per project. CC-ABHI's funding will be provided directly to the host institution employing the principal Investigators of the qualifying projects. All projects must be completed within a 12 to 18 month period. Eligible applicants must submit an Expression of Interest by 5 p.m. EST on March 30, 2017. Shortlisted applicants will then be invited to complete a full application form, which must be submitted by 5 p.m. EST on May 25, 2017. The complete eligibility requirements, selection criteria and additional information about the program are available on the CC-ABHI website. Funding for the Researcher-Clinician Partnership Program is provided by the Government of Canada through the Public Health Agency of Canada, by the Government of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science, and by the Baycrest Foundation. The Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation (CC-ABHI) is a solution accelerator for the aging and brain health sector, providing funding and support to innovators for the development, testing, and dissemination of new ideas and technologies that address unmet brain health and seniors' care needs. Established in 2015, it is the result of the largest investment in brain health and aging in Canadian history. CC-ABHI is a unique collaboration of health care, science, industry, not-for-profit and government partners whose aim is to help improve quality of life for the world's aging population, allowing older adults to age safely in the setting of their choice while maintaining their cognitive, emotional, and physical well-being. For more information on CC-ABHI, please visit: www.ccabhi.com. Baycrest Health Sciences is a global leader in geriatric residential living, healthcare, research, innovation and education, with a special focus on brain health and aging. Fully affiliated with the University of Toronto, Baycrest provides excellent care for older adults combined with an extensive clinical training program for the next generation of healthcare professionals and one of the world's top research institutes in cognitive neuroscience, the Rotman Research Institute. Baycrest is home to the federally and provincially-funded Canadian Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation, a solution accelerator focused on driving innovation in the aging and brain health sector, and is the developer of Cogniciti -- a free online memory assessment for Canadians 40+ who are concerned about their memory. Through its dedicated centres, the organization offers unmatched global knowledge exchange and commercialization capacity. Founded in 1918 as the Jewish Home for Aged, Baycrest continues to embrace the long-standing tradition of all great Jewish healthcare institutions to improve the well-being of people in their local communities and around the globe. For more information please visit: www.baycrest.org.
Trainor L.J.,McMaster University |
Trainor L.J.,Rotman Research Institute
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015
Whether music was an evolutionary adaptation that conferred survival advantages or a cultural creation has generated much debate. Consistent with an evolutionary hypothesis, music is unique to humans, emerges early in development and is universal across societies. However, the adaptive benefit of music is far from obvious. Music is highly flexible, generative and changes rapidly over time, consistent with a cultural creation hypothesis. In this paper, it is proposed that much of musical pitch and timing structure adapted to preexisting features of auditory processing that evolved for auditory scene analysis (ASA). Thus, music may have emerged initially as a cultural creation made possible by preexisting adaptations for ASA. However, some aspects of music, such as its emotional and social power, may have subsequently proved beneficial for survival and led to adaptations that enhanced musical behaviour. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic evidence is considered in this regard. In particular, enhanced auditory–motor pathways in humans that enable movement entrainment to music and consequent increases in social cohesion, and pathways enabling music to affect reward centres in the brain should be investigated as possible musical adaptations. It is concluded that the origins of music are complex and probably involved exaptation, cultural creation and evolutionary adaptation. © 2015 The Authors.
Chow T.W.,Rotman Research Institute
The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques | Year: 2011
To guide development of public awareness and caregiver support resources for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes. We used an online survey to explore their needs. The survey was self-administered by self-identified, English-speaking caregivers for patients with FTD in several countries. Of 79 caregiver respondents, approximately half were caring for patients with behavioural variant FTD or semantic dementia. The most common initial symptoms were Changes in Thinking and Judgment. Half of the respondents identified "failure to recognize the early stage of illness as a dementia" as the most troublesome aspect. Accordingly, over 40% of respondents had difficulty obtaining an accurate diagnosis for the patient. Caregivers prioritized family counseling and the public educational message that dementia can affect young people. The largest international survey of FTD caregivers to-date showed that support is needed for all family members adapting to the shock of early-onset dementia, and this may be most readily provided online.
Hopf L.,Rotman Research Institute
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS | Year: 2013
The neural organization of cognitive processes, particularly hemispheric lateralization, changes throughout childhood and adolescence. Differences in the neural basis of relational memory between children and adults are not well characterized. In this study we used magnetoencephalography to observe the lateralization differences of hippocampal activation in children and adults during performance of a relational memory task, transverse patterning (TP). The TP task was paired with an elemental control task, which does not depend upon the hippocampus. We contrasted two hypotheses; the compensation hypothesis would suggest that more bilateral activation in children would lead to better TP performance, whereas the maturation hypothesis would predict that a more adult-like right-lateralized pattern of hippocampal activation would lead to better performance. Mean-centered partial least squares analysis was used to determine unique patterns of brain activation specific to each task per group, while diminishing activation that is consistent across tasks. Our findings support the maturation hypothesis that a more adult-like pattern of increased right hippocampal lateralization in children leads to superior performance on the TP task. We also found dynamic changes of lateralization throughout the time course for all three groups, suggesting that caution is needed when interpreting conclusions about brain lateralization.
Vandermorris S.,Rotman Research Institute
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS | Year: 2013
The relationship of higher order problem solving to basic neuropsychological processes likely depends on the type of problems to be solved. Well-defined problems (e.g., completing a series of errands) may rely primarily on executive functions. Conversely, ill-defined problems (e.g., navigating socially awkward situations) may, in addition, rely on medial temporal lobe (MTL) mediated episodic memory processes. Healthy young (N = 18; M = 19; SD = 1.3) and old (N = 18; M = 73; SD = 5.0) adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests of executive and episodic memory function, and experimental tests of problem solving. Correlation analyses and age group comparisons demonstrated differential contributions of executive and autobiographical episodic memory function to well-defined and ill-defined problem solving and evidence for an episodic simulation mechanism underlying ill-defined problem solving efficacy. Findings are consistent with the emerging idea that MTL-mediated episodic simulation processes support the effective solution of ill-defined problems, over and above the contribution of frontally mediated executive functions. Implications for the development of intervention strategies that target preservation of functional independence in older adults are discussed.
Paus T.,Rotman Research Institute
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2013
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This review provides a conceptual framework for the study of factors - in our genes and environment - that shape the adolescent brain. I start by pointing out that brain phenotypes obtained with magnetic resonance imaging are complex traits reflecting the interplay of genes and the environment. In some cases, variations in the structural phenotypes observed during adolescence have their origin in the pre-natal or early post-natal periods. I then emphasize the bidirectional nature of brain-behavior relationships observed during this period of human development, where function may be more likely to influence structure rather than vice versa. In the main part of this article, I review our ongoing work on the influence of gonadal hormones on the adolescent brain. I also discuss the importance of social context and brain plasticity on shaping the relevant neural circuits. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Stuss D.T.,Rotman Research Institute
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Year: 2011
Proceeding from the assumptions that specific frontal regions control discrete functions and that very basic cognitive processes can be systematically manipulated to reveal those functions, recent reports have demonstrated consistent anatomical/functional relationships: dorsomedial for energization, left dorsolateral for task setting, and right dorsolateral for monitoring. There is no central executive. There are, instead, numerous domain general processes discretely distributed across several frontal regions that act in concert to accomplish control. Beyond these functions, there are two additional "frontal" anatomical/functional relationships: ventral-medial/orbital for emotional and behavioral regulation, and frontopolar for integrative-even meta-cognitive-functions. © 2011 The International Neuropsychological Society.
Stuss D.T.,Rotman Research Institute
Current Opinion in Neurology | Year: 2011
Purpose of Review: This review examines the applicability of a framework of frontal lobe functioning to understand the sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent Findings: TBI research illustrates the need for improved phenotyping of TBI outcome. The functions of the frontal lobes are divisible into four distinct anatomically discrete categories: executive functions, speed of processing, personality changes, and problems with empathy and social cognition. Research on the outcome after TBI demonstrates several different types of impairment that map onto this framework. Summary: TBI predominantly causes damage to the frontal/temporal regions, regardless of the pathophysiology. Limiting the spotlight to the frontal lobes, a model is presented describing four separate general categories of functions within the frontal lobes, with specific types of processes within each category. A selective review of TBI literature supports the importance of evaluating TBI patients with this framework in mind. In addition, there is growing evidence that rehabilitation of TBI patients must consider this broader approach to direct rehabilitation efforts and improve outcome. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Rose N.S.,Rotman Research Institute
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2013
Individual differences in working memory (WM) are related to performance on secondary memory (SM), and fluid intelligence (gF) tests. However, the source of the relation remains unclear, in part because few studies have controlled for the nature of encoding; therefore, it is unclear whether individual variation is due to encoding, maintenance, or retrieval processes. In the current study, participants performed a WM task (the levels-of-processing span task; Rose, Myerson, Roediger III, & Hale, 2010) and a SM test that tested for both targets and the distracting processing words from the initial WM task. Deeper levels of processing at encoding did not benefit WM, but did benefit subsequent SM, although the amount of benefit was smaller for those with lower WM spans. This result suggests that, despite encoding cues that facilitate retrieval from SM, low spans may have engaged in shallower, maintenance-focused processing to maintain the words in WM. Low spans also recalled fewer targets, more distractors, and more extralist intrusions than high spans, although this was partially due to low spans' poorer recall of targets, which resulted in a greater number of opportunities to commit recall errors. Delayed recall of intrusions and commission of source errors (labeling targets as processing words and vice versa) were significant negative predictors of gF. These results suggest that the ability to use source information to recall relevant information and withhold recall of irrelevant information is a critical source of both individual variation in WM and the relation between WM, SM, and gF. © 2013 Canadian Psychological Association.
Biss R.K.,Rotman Research Institute |
Hasher L.,Rotman Research Institute
Emotion | Year: 2012
A literature on young adults reports that morning-type individuals, or "larks," report higher levels of positive affect compared with evening-type individuals, or "owls" (Clark, Watson, & Leeka, 1989; Hasler et al., 2010). Morning types are relatively rare among young adults but frequent among older adults (May & Hasher, 1998; Mecacci et al., 1986), and here we report on the association between chronotype and affect in a large sample of healthy younger and older adults. Overall, older adults reported higher levels of positive affect than younger adults, with both younger and older morning types reporting higher levels of positive affect and subjective health than age mates who scored lower on morningness. Morningness partially mediated the association between age and positive affect, suggesting that greater morningness tendencies among older adults may contribute to their improved well-being relative to younger adults. © 2012 American Psychological Association.