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Silvassa, India

Christopher L.P.,South Dakota School of Mines and Technology | Hemanathan Kumar,University of Jyvaskyla | Zambare V.P.,Rossari Biotech Ltd.
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

The chemical-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel has been industrially adopted due to its high conversion rates and low production time. However, this process suffers from several inherent drawbacks related to energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly processing steps such as catalyst and product recovery, and waste water treatment. This has led to the development of the immobilized enzyme catalyzed process for biodiesel production which is characterized by certain environmental and economical advantages over the conventional chemical method. These include room-temperature reaction conditions, elimination of treatment costs associated with recovery of chemical catalysts, enzyme re-use, high substrate specificity, the ability to convert both free fatty acids and triglycerides to biodiesel in one step, lower alcohol to oil ratio, avoidance of side reactions and minimized impurities, easier product separation and recovery; biodegradability and environmental acceptance. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current state of advancements in the enzymatic transesterification of oils. A thorough analysis of recent biotechnological progress is presented in the context of present technological challenges and future developmental opportunities aimed at bringing the enzyme costs down and improving the overall process economics towards large scale production of enzymatic biodiesel. As the major obstacles that impede industrial production of enzymatic biodiesel is the enzyme cost and conversion efficiency, this topic is addressed in greater detail in the review. A better understanding and control of the underpinning mechanisms of the enzymatic biodiesel process would lead to improved process efficiency and economics. The yield and conversion efficiency of enzymatic catalysis is influenced by a number of factors such as the nature and properties of the enzyme catalyst, enzyme and whole cell immobilization techniques, enzyme pretreatment, biodiesel substrates, acyl acceptors and their step-wise addition, use of solvents, operating conditions of enzymatic catalysis, bioreactor design. The ability of lipase to catalyze the synthesis of alkyl esters from low-cost feedstock with high free fatty acid content such as waste cooking oil, grease and tallow would lower the cost of enzymatic biodiesel. Discovery and engineering of new and robust lipases with high activity, thermostability and resistance to inhibition are needed for the establishment of a cost-effective enzymatic process. Opportunities to create a sustainable and eco-friendly pathway for production of enzymatic biodiesel from renewable resources are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Christopher L.P.,Lakehead University | Zambare V.P.,Rossari Biotech Ltd. | Zambare A.,Om Biotechnologies | Kumar H.,University of Jyvaskyla | Malek L.,Lakehead University
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: A thermophilic lipase-producing Geobacillus thermodenitrificans strain AV-5 was isolated from the Mushroom Spring of Yellowstone National Park in WY, USA and studied as a source of lipase for transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel. RESULTS: A maximum activity of 330 U mL-1 was produced on 2% (v/v) waste cooking oil at 50 °C, pH 8, aeration rate of 1 vvm and agitation speed of 400 rpm. However, the higher lipase productivity (14.04 U mL-1 h-1) was found at a volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) value of 18.48 h-1. The partially purified lipase had a molecular weight, temperature and pH optimum of 50 kDa, 65 °C and pH 9, respectively, and was thermo-alkali stable: at 70 °C, it retained 81% activity and 45% stability; at pH 10 it lost only 15% and 2.6% of its maximum activity and stability, respectively. Enzyme kinetic studies with p-nitrophenyl laurate as substrate revealed high substrate specificity (km of 0.440 mmol L-1) and kinetic activity (vmax of 556 nmol mL min-1) of lipase. CONCLUSIONS: The kLa was found to be highly dependent on aeration and agitation rates. Following optimization of fermentation medium and parameters, a 7.5-fold increase in lipase production by G. thermodenitrificans was attained. The lipase activity and substrate specificity (as km) are among the highest reported in the literature for bacterial lipases. It was demonstrated that the enzyme can produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil with a conversion yields of 76%. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Sheikh J.,Rossari Biotech Ltd. | Jagtap P.S.,Institute of Chemical Technology | Teli M.D.,Institute of Chemical Technology
Fibers and Polymers | Year: 2016

Most of the natural dyes require mordants for their fixation on textile materials. Natural mordants are thus gaining importance in order to get complete-natural dyeing. In the present work, natural dyes and mordants were extracted using conventional and ultrasound methods and comparative studies were made. The natural mordants namely harda and tamarind seed coat and natural dyes like turmeric, henna were extracted using conventional and ultrasound approaches and various extracts obtained were described in terms of their optical densities. In order to verify the extraction efficiencies, wool fabrics were dyed with extracts of various combinations of mordants/dyes and dyed fabrics were evaluated for their colour strengths and fastness properties. The extent of colour extraction was higher in case of ultrasound assisted extraction as compared to that of conventional method. The fabrics dyed using extracts of ultrasound method showed higher colour values as compared to those dyed using extracts from conventional methods thus confirming ultrasound as more efficient method of extraction. © 2016, The Korean Fiber Society and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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