Yamanaka N.,University of Minnesota |
Rewitz K.F.,Roskilde University |
O'Connor M.B.,University of Minnesota
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2013
The steroid hormone ecdysone is the central regulator of insect developmental transitions. Recent new advances in our understanding of ecdysone action have relied heavily on the application of Drosophila melanogaster molecular genetic tools to study insect metamorphosis. In this review, we focus on three major aspects of Drosophila ecdysone biology: (a) factors that regulate the timing of ecdysone release, (b) molecular basis of stage-and tissue-specific responses to ecdysone, and (c) feedback regulation and coordination of ecdysone signaling. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Dyre J.C.,Roskilde University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014
Recent developments show that many liquids and solids have an approximate "hidden" scale invariance that implies the existence of lines in the thermodynamic phase diagram, so-called isomorphs, along which structure and dynamics in properly reduced units are invariant to a good approximation. This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Christensen T.B.,Roskilde University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2011
The article explores the integration of alternative drivetrain solutions in the automotive industry. The article includes an analysis of the structure of the conventional automotive value chain and presents four examples of alternative vehicle designs. The article concludes that the component sharing across drivetrain solutions such as the battery electric, the hybrid and the fuel cell system opens a window of opportunity for modular design strategies that may make integration into the otherwise locked conventional production system possible. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hertzum M.,Roskilde University
International Journal of Medical Informatics | Year: 2011
Purpose: Many emergency departments (EDs) are in a process of transitioning from dry-erase to electronic whiteboards. This study investigates differences in ED clinicians' perception and assessment of their electronic whiteboards across departments and staff groups and at two points in time. Method: We conducted a survey consisting of a questionnaire administered when electronic whiteboards were introduced and another questionnaire administered when they had been in use for 8-9 months. The survey involved two EDs and, for reasons of comparison, a paediatric department. Results: The ED respondents consider the whiteboard information important to their overview, and they approve of the introduction of electronic whiteboards. With the electronic whiteboards, the ED respondents experience a better overall overview of their work than with dry-erase whiteboards. They also experience that whiteboard information has to a larger extent become available where and when they need it. Conversely, the ED respondents' expectations toward the electronic whiteboards have not been fulfilled when it comes to keeping information current and obtaining improvements for the patients. The ED staff groups of physicians, nurses, and secretaries experience the electronic whiteboards differently. The physicians, for example, consider it faster and simpler than the nurses to find information on the electronic whiteboards. After extended use, multiple questionnaire items about achieved performance and required effort contribute to explaining the variation in the nurses' overall assessment of the whiteboards; for physicians and secretaries few items contribute to explaining the variation in their overall assessment. The respondents from the paediatric department perceive their whiteboards as less important to their overview and collaboration than the ED respondents. Conclusion: The ED clinicians experience positive effects of electronic over dry-erase whiteboards. However, their assessment of electronic whiteboards depends on their staff group, evolves over time, and differs from that of paediatric clinicians. These results likely affect clinicians' acceptance of electronic whiteboards and their command of their work. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Widlund A.L.,Roskilde University
Expert reviews in molecular medicine | Year: 2013
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol produced by plants and is proposed to have multiple beneficial effects on health. In recent years, the interest in this molecule has increased nearly exponentially following the major findings that RSV (I) is chemo-preventive in some cancer models, (II) is cardio-protective and (III) has positive effects on metabolism in mammals and increases lifespan in lower organisms. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central controller of cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and angiogenesis. As a part of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, the mTOR kinase plays a key role in several pathways involved in cancer and metabolic diseases. Recent studies suggest that modulation of the mTOR signalling pathway could play an important role in mediating the beneficial effects of RSV. Therefore, this review summarises the current findings regarding RSV and its inhibition/activation of the proteins in the mTOR pathway, and thereby propose the proteins of the mTOR cascade to be primary targets for RSV. RSV affects many different targets related to mTOR, and it is not clear which is most relevant. However, most frequently, RSV is found to inhibit the activity of the mTOR pathway proteins, and to activate AMPK and LKB1, which can suppress mTOR signalling. Thus, it appears that RSV plays a role in modulation of proteins of the mTOR pathway although more research is still needed to fully understand the interaction.