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Sarasota, FL, United States

A key target in the treatment of HIV-1/AIDS has been the viral protease. Here we first studied in silico the evolution of protease resistance. Primary active site resistance mutations were found to weaken interactions between protease and both inhibitor and substrate P4-P4′ residues. We next studied the effects of secondary resistance mutations, often distant from the active site, on protease binding to inhibitors and substrates. Those secondary mutations contributed to the rise of multi-drug resistance while also enhancing viral replicative capacity. Here many secondary resistance mutations were found in the HIV-1 protease substrate-grooves, one on each face of the symmetrical protease dimer. The protease active site binds substrate P4-P4′ residues, while the substrate-groove allows the protease to bind residues P12-P5/P5′-P12′, for a total of twenty-four residues. The substrate-groove secondary resistance mutations were found to compensate for the loss of interactions between the inhibitor resistant protease active site and substrate P4-P4′ residues, due to primary resistance mutations, by increasing interactions with substrate P12-P5/P5′-P12′ residues. In vitro experiments demonstrated that a multi-drug resistant protease with substrate-groove resistance mutations was slower than wild-type protease in cleaving a peptide substrate, which did not allow for substrate-groove interactions, while it had similar activity as wild-type protease when using a Gag polyprotein in which cleavage-site P12-P5/P5′-P12′ residues could be bound by the protease substrate-grooves. When the Gag MA/CA cleavage site P12-P5/P5′-P12′ residues were mutated the multi-drug resistant protease cleaved the mutant Gag significantly slower, indicating the importance of the protease S-grooves in binding to substrate. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). Al1 rights reserved. Source


Sajan M.P.,Medical and Research Services | Farese R.V.,Medical and Research Services | Farese R.V.,Roskamp Institute | Farese R.V.,University of South Florida
Diabetologia | Year: 2012

Aims/hypothesis We examined the role of protein kinase C-ι (PKC-ι) in mediating alterations in the abundance of enzymes in hepatocytes of type 2 diabetic humans that contribute importantly to the development of lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. Methods We examined (1) insulin signalling in isolated hepatocytes of non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic humans and (2) the effects of two newly developed small molecule PKC-ι inhibitors on aberrant signalling and downstream processes. Results In contrast with PKC-ι deficiency in diabetic muscle, which diminishes glucose transport, PKC-ι in diabetic hepatocytes was overproduced and overactive, basally and after insulin treatment, and, moreover, was accompanied by increased abundance of PKC-ι-dependent lipogenic, proinflammatory and gluconeogenic enzymes. Heightened PKC-ι activity most likely reflected heightened activity of IRS-2-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as IRS-1 levels and IRS-1/PI3K activity were markedly diminished. Importantly, insulin-stimulated PKC-ι abundance and its overabundance in diabetic hepatocytes was reversed in vitro by both insulin deprivation and PKC-ι inhibitors; this suggested operation of an insulin-driven, feed-forward/ positive-feedback mechanism. In contrast with PKC-ι, protein kinase B (Akt2) activity and activation by insulin was diminished, apparently reflecting IRS-1 deficiency. Treatment of diabetic hepatocytes with PKC-ι/λ inhibitors diminished abundance of lipogenic, proinflammatory and gluconeogenic enzymes. Conclusions/interpretation Our findings suggest that a vicious cycle of PKC-ι overactivity and overproduction exists in hepatocytes of humans with type 2 diabetes and contributes importantly to maintaining overactivity of lipogenic, proinflammatory and gluconeogenic pathways, which underlies the lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in type 2 diabetes.© 2012 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA). Source


Li R.,Roskamp Institute | Singh M.,University of North Texas Health Science Center
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2014

Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer's disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as well as in activational effects, where the influence of the sex steroids influence brain function in adulthood. Further, the rate of cognitive decline with aging is also different between the sexes. Understanding the biology of sex differences in cognitive function will not only provide insight into Alzheimer's disease prevention, but also is integral to the development of personalized, gender-specific medicine. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of sex differences in cognitive function from young to old, and examines the effects of sex hormone treatments on Alzheimer's disease in men and women. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Farese R.V.,University of South Florida | Sajan M.P.,Roskamp Institute
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms mediate insulin effects on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissues and lipid synthesis in liver and support other metabolic processes, expression of enzymes needed for islet insulin secretion and hepatic glucose production/release, CNS appetite suppression, and inflammatory responses. In muscle, selective aPKC deficiency impairs glucose uptake and produces insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which, by activating hepatic aPKC, provokes inordinate increases in lipid synthesis and produces typical "metabolic syndrome" features. In contrast, hepatic aPKC deficiency diminishes lipid synthesis and protects against metabolic syndrome features. Unfortunately, aPKC is deficient in muscle but paradoxically conserved in liver in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus; this combination is particularly problematic because it promotes lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities. Accordingly, metabolic effects of aPKCs can be "good" or "bad," depending upon nutritional status; thus, muscle glucose uptake, islet insulin secretion, hepatic glucose and lipid production/release, and adipose fat synthesis/ storage would be important for survival during periods of limited food availability and therefore be "good." However, during times of food surfeit, excessive activation of hepatic aPKC, whether caused by overnutrition or impairments in extrahepatic effects of insulin, would lead to inordinate increases in hepatic lipid synthesis and metabolic syndrome features and therefore be "bad." In keeping with these ideas, the inhibition of hepatic aPKC markedly ameliorates lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in experimental models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We postulate that a similar approach may be useful for treating humans. Source


Li R.,Roskamp Institute
Journal of Sport and Health Science | Year: 2014

The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire lifespan. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory - especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports. © 2014 Shanghai University of Sport. Source

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