Roskamp Institute

Sarasota, FL, United States

Roskamp Institute

Sarasota, FL, United States
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Zhou Y.,Shanghai University of Sport | Zhao M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhou C.,Shanghai University of Sport | Li R.,Shanghai University of Sport | Li R.,Roskamp Institute
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2016

Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Tang X.,Liaoning Normal University | Tang X.,Okayama University | Wu J.,Okayama University | Wu J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2016

Stimuli from multiple sensory organs can be integrated into a coherent representation through multiple phases of multisensory processing; this phenomenon is called multisensory integration. Multisensory integration can interact with attention. Here, we propose a framework in which attention modulates multisensory processing in both endogenous (goal-driven) and exogenous (stimulus-driven) ways. Moreover, multisensory integration exerts not only bottom-up but also top-down control over attention. Specifically, we propose the following: (1) endogenous attentional selectivity acts on multiple levels of multisensory processing to determine the extent to which simultaneous stimuli from different modalities can be integrated; (2) integrated multisensory events exert top-down control on attentional capture via multisensory search templates that are stored in the brain; (3) integrated multisensory events can capture attention efficiently, even in quite complex circumstances, due to their increased salience compared to unimodal events and can thus improve search accuracy; and (4) within a multisensory object, endogenous attention can spread from one modality to another in an exogenous manner. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Walker K.R.,Tufts University | Kang E.L.,Tufts University | Whalen M.J.,Harvard University | Shen Y.,Roskamp Institute | Tesco G.,Tufts University
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most robust environmental risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compelling evidence is accumulating that a single event of TBI is associated with increased levels of Aβ. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We report here that the BACE1 interacting protein, GGA3, is depleted while BACE1 levels increase in the acute phase after injury (48 h) in a mouse model of TBI. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3-null mice. We next found that head trauma potentiates BACE1 elevation in GGA3-null mice in the acute phase after TBI, and discovered that GGA1, a GGA3 homolog, is a novel caspase-3 substrate depleted at 48 h after TBI. Moreover, GGA1 silencing potentiates BACE1 elevation induced by GGA3 deletion in neurons in vitro, indicating that GGA1 and GGA3 synergistically regulate BACE1. Accordingly, we found that levels of both GGA1 and GGA3 are depleted while BACE1 levels are increased in a series of postmortem AD brains. Finally, we show that GGA3 haploin sufficiency results in sustained elevation of BACE1 and Aβ levels while GGA1 levels are restored in the subacute phase (7 d) after injury. In conclusion, our data indicate that depletion of GGA1 and GGA3 engender a rapid and robust elevation of BACE1 in the acute phase after injury. However, the efficient disposal of the acutely accumulated BACE1 solely depends on GGA3 levels in the subacute phase of injury. © 2012 the authors.

Wang H.,Roskamp Institute | Li R.,Roskamp Institute | Shen Y.,Roskamp Institute
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2013

β-Secretase (BACE1, β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1) is an aspartic proteinase that has multiple functions in various physiological processes, such as cell differentiation, immunoregulation, and cell death. There is increasing evidence that changes in BACE1 activity are involved in many diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), schizophrenia, epileptic behavior, and others. However, a deeper understanding of the molecular biology of BACE1 is necessary for further exploration of cell development, immunological regulation, and disease pathogenesis. Here, we review the molecular and cellular biology of BACE1, including its enzymatic properties, structure, biosynthesis, and physiological functions to provide a new perspective and rational assessment of drugability. Lastly, we discuss proposed strategies to control BACE1 activity for possible therapeutic application. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cui J.,Roskamp Institute | Shen Y.,Roskamp Institute | Li R.,Roskamp Institute
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Estrogens are the primary female sex hormones and play important roles in both reproductive and non-reproductive systems. Estrogens can be synthesized in non-reproductive tissues such as liver, heart, muscle, bone and brain, and tissue-specific estrogen synthesis is consistent with a diversity of estrogen actions. In this article we review tissue and cell-specific estrogen synthesis and estrogen receptor signaling in three parts: (i) synthesis and metabolism, (ii) the distribution of estrogen receptors and signaling, and (iii) estrogen functions and related disorders, including cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD). This comprehensive review provides new insights into estrogens by giving a better understanding of the tissue-specific estrogen effects and their roles in various diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Li R.,Roskamp Institute | Singh M.,University of North Texas Health Science Center
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2014

Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer's disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as well as in activational effects, where the influence of the sex steroids influence brain function in adulthood. Further, the rate of cognitive decline with aging is also different between the sexes. Understanding the biology of sex differences in cognitive function will not only provide insight into Alzheimer's disease prevention, but also is integral to the development of personalized, gender-specific medicine. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of sex differences in cognitive function from young to old, and examines the effects of sex hormone treatments on Alzheimer's disease in men and women. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Farese R.V.,University of South Florida | Sajan M.P.,Roskamp Institute
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms mediate insulin effects on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tissues and lipid synthesis in liver and support other metabolic processes, expression of enzymes needed for islet insulin secretion and hepatic glucose production/release, CNS appetite suppression, and inflammatory responses. In muscle, selective aPKC deficiency impairs glucose uptake and produces insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which, by activating hepatic aPKC, provokes inordinate increases in lipid synthesis and produces typical "metabolic syndrome" features. In contrast, hepatic aPKC deficiency diminishes lipid synthesis and protects against metabolic syndrome features. Unfortunately, aPKC is deficient in muscle but paradoxically conserved in liver in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus; this combination is particularly problematic because it promotes lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities. Accordingly, metabolic effects of aPKCs can be "good" or "bad," depending upon nutritional status; thus, muscle glucose uptake, islet insulin secretion, hepatic glucose and lipid production/release, and adipose fat synthesis/ storage would be important for survival during periods of limited food availability and therefore be "good." However, during times of food surfeit, excessive activation of hepatic aPKC, whether caused by overnutrition or impairments in extrahepatic effects of insulin, would lead to inordinate increases in hepatic lipid synthesis and metabolic syndrome features and therefore be "bad." In keeping with these ideas, the inhibition of hepatic aPKC markedly ameliorates lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in experimental models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We postulate that a similar approach may be useful for treating humans.

The study of specific target protein expression is often performed by western blotting, a commonly used method to measure the protein expression in neuroscience research by specific antibodies. Housekeeping proteins are used as an internal control for protein loading as well as reference in the western blotting analysis. This practice is based on the belief that such housekeeping genes are considered to be ubiquitously and constitutively expressed in every tissue and produce the minimal essential transcripts necessary for normal cellular function. The most commonly used housekeeping proteins are β-actin, β-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, recent studies have shown significant variation in some housekeeping genes both at the mRNA and protein levels in various neuropathological events, such as spinal cord injury and Alzheimer's diseases. Changes of housekeeping genes are also induced by non-neuronal diseases in various tissues. Therefore, these discoveries raise a potential concern regarding whether using a housekeeping protein as an internal standard for target protein analysis is an appropriate practice. This minireview will focus on (I) the effects of neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, experimental condition, and tissue-specific roles on alteration of housekeeping genes, and (II) alternative internal standards for gene and protein expression analysis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Li R.,Roskamp Institute | Cui J.,Roskamp Institute | Shen Y.,Roskamp Institute
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Estrogens can be synthesized in non-reproductive tissues such as liver, heart, muscle, bone and the brain. During the past decade, increasing evidence suggests that brain estrogen can not only be synthesized by neurons, but also by astrocytes. Brain estrogen also works locally at the site of synthesis in paracrine and/or intracrine fashion to maintain important tissue-specific functions. Here, we will focus on the biology of brain estrogen and its impact on cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease. This comprehensive review provides new insights into brain estrogens by presenting a better understanding of the tissue-specific estrogen effects and their roles in healthy ageing and cognitive function. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Li R.,Roskamp Institute
Journal of Sport and Health Science | Year: 2014

The differences of learning and memory between males and females have been well documented and confirmed by both human and animal studies. The sex differences in cognition started from early stage of neuronal development and last through entire lifespan. The major biological basis of the gender-dependent cognitive activity includes two major components: sex hormone and sex-related characteristics, such as sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) protein. However, the knowledge of how much biology of sex contributes to normal cognitive function and elite athletes in various sports are still pretty limited. In this review, we will be focusing on sex differences in spatial learning and memory - especially the role of male- and female-type cognitive behaviors in sports. © 2014 Shanghai University of Sport.

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