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Casellas J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Casellas J.,University of California at Davis | Gularte R.J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gularte R.J.,University of California at Davis | And 8 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2012

Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is the departure from the expected genotypic frequencies under Mendelian inheritance. This departure can be due to multiple physiological mechanisms during gametogenesis, fertilization, fetal and embryonic development, and early neonatal life. Although a few TRD loci have been reported in mouse, inheritance patterns have never been evaluated for TRD. In this article, we developed a Bayesian binomial model accounting for additive and dominant deviation TRD mechanisms. Moreover, this model was used to perform genome-wide scans for TRD quantitative trait loci (QTL) on six F2 mouse crosses involving between 296 and 541 mice and between 72 and 1854 genetic markers. Statistical significance of each model was checked at each genetic marker with Bayes factors. Genome scans revealed overdominance TRD QTL located in mouse chromosomes 1, 2, 12, 13, and 14 and additive TRD QTL in mouse chromosomes 2, 3, and 15, although these results did not replicate across mouse crosses. This research contributes new statistical tools for the analysis of specific genetic patterns involved in TRD in F2 populations, our results suggesting a relevant incidence of TRD phenomena in mouse with important implications for both statistical analyses and biological research. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America. Source


Sietsema K.E.,University of California at Los Angeles | Meng F.,Merck And Co. | Yates N.A.,Merck And Co. | Hendrickson R.C.,Merck And Co. | And 5 more authors.
Biomarkers | Year: 2010

Proteomics was utilized to identify novel potential plasma biomarkers of exercise-induced muscle injury. Muscle injury was induced in nine human volunteers by eccentric upper extremity exercise. Liquid chromatographymass spectrometry identified 30 peptides derived from nine proteins which showed significant change in abundance post-exercise. Four of these proteins, haemoglobin α chain, haemoglobin β chain, α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and plasma C-1 protease inhibitor (C1 Inh), met the criterion for inclusion based on changes in at least two distinct peptides. ACT and C1 Inh peptides peaked earlier post-exercise than creatine kinase, and thus appear to provide new information on muscle response to injury. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Wang C.-Y.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Stapleton D.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Schueler K.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Rabaglia M.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2012

Nonalchoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver dysfunction and is associated with metabolic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. We mapped a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NAFLD to chromosome 17 in a cross between C57BL/6 (B6) and BTBR mouse strains made genetically obese with the Lepob/ob mutation. We identified Tsc2 as a gene underlying the chromosome 17 NAFLD QTL. Tsc2 functions as an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is involved in many physiological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. We found that Tsc2+/- mice have increased lipogenic gene expression in the liver in an insulin-dependent manner. The coding single nucleotide polymorphism between the B6 and BTBR strains leads to a change in the ability to inhibit the expression of lipogenic genes and de novo lipogenesis in AML12 cells and to promote the proliferation of Ins1 cells. This difference is due to a different affinity of binding to Tsc1, which affects the stability of Tsc2. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Yang R.,Merck And Co. | Castriota G.,Merck And Co. | Chen Y.,Merck And Co. | Cleary M.A.,Rosetta Inpharmatics | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2011

Objective:To investigate the impact of reduced adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) in control of body weight, glucose and lipid homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.Methods:We applied RNA interference (RNAi) technology to generate FABP4 germline knockdown mice to investigate their metabolic phenotype.Results:RNAi-mediated knockdown reduced FABP4 mRNA expression and protein levels by almost 90% in adipocytes of standard chow-fed mice. In adipocytes of DIO mice, RNAi reduced FABP4 expression and protein levels by 70 and 80%, respectively. There was no increase in adipocyte FABP5 expression in FABP4 knockdown mice. The knockdown of FABP4 significantly increased body weight and fat mass in DIO mice. However, FABP4 knockdown did not affect plasma glucose and lipid homeostasis in DIO mice; nor did it improve their insulin sensitivity.Conclusion:Our data indicate that robust knockdown of FABP4 increases body weight and fat mass without improving glucose and lipid homeostasis in DIO mice. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Wang M.L.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Wang M.L.,University of Washington | Walsh R.,Rosetta Inpharmatics | Robinson K.L.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2011

Cancer cells exhibit the ability to proliferate indefinitely, but paradoxically, overexpression of cellular oncogenes in primary cells can result in a rapid and irreversible cell cycle arrest known as oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). However, we have shown that constitutive overexpression of the oncogene c-MYC in primary human foreskin fibroblasts results in a population of cells with unlimited lifespan; these immortalized cells are henceforth referred to as iMYC. Here, in order to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the immortalization process, a gene expression signature of 3 independently established iMYC cell lines compared with matched early passage c-MYC overexpressing cells was derived. Network analysis of this "iMYC signature" indicated that a large fraction of the downregulated genes were functionally connected and major nodes centered around the TGFβ, IL-6 and IGF-1 signaling pathways. Here, we focused on the functional validation of the alteration of TGFβ response during c-MYC-mediated immortalization. The results demonstrate loss of sensitivity of iMYC cells to activation of TGFβ signaling upon ligand addition. Furthermore, we show that aberrant regulation of the p27 tumor suppressor protein in iMYC cells is a key event that contributes to loss of response to TGFβ. These findings highlight the potential to reveal key pathways contributing to the self-renewal of cancer cells through functional mining of the unique gene expression signature of cells immortalized by c-MYC. © 2011 Landes Bioscience. Source

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