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Rimbock R.,GiB Gesellschaft fur Innovative Bautechnologie MbH | Eierle B.,Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences
Bautechnik | Year: 2012

In this article are represented the comparison of the actual and future technical standards and rules for building parts which prevent persons from falling down. This supposed easy topic gives us by closer reflection many characteristics, gaps and overlappings in the regulations. The forecast of the future standards shows for the practical use many substantially changes. This article is concentrating on the horizontal uniformly distributed line loads and should serve as a guideline for the structural engineer. A further article will be about impact loading. © Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin. Source

Hammerschmidt T.,Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences
Gesundheitsokonomie und Qualitatsmanagement | Year: 2016

Objectives: In the past, German drug prices were not regulated at launch (i.?e. free pricing at full reimbursement) and among the highest in Europe. In 2011, the Pharmaceutical Market Restructuring Act (AMNOG) introduced a benefit assessment followed by negotiations of a reimbursement price immediately after launch of new, patent-protected drugs. Today, free pricing is only possible during the first 12 month after launch. Among others, relevant criteria in the price negotiations are the added benefit and the corresponding drug prices from specified European countries. The objective of this study is to analyze the results of the price negotiations with a specific focus on how manufacturers in Germany set their prices at launch and how reimbursement prices fit in the EU price range. Methods: Analysis of launch and reimbursement prices as well as published prices from relevant EU countries for all drugs with a published reimbursement price between 2011 and 2015. Results: 85 drugs are included in the analysis. Price negotiations reduce the launch price by 26.2?% on average with wide variation. Reduction is significantly higher for those drugs which were taken from the market by the manufacturer (opt out) as well as for neurology drugs. Reductions are significantly associated with the extent of added benefit of the drugs. German launch prices present the highest price in the EU countries for 56.5?% of the drugs. On average they are set 4.2?% above the highest price in the other EU countries. Negotiated reimbursement prices are lower than the minimum EU price for 30.6?% of drugs. On average, reimbursement prices are 6.4?% above the minimum and 11.9?% below the average EU-price. Conclusions: Under AMNOG, Germany is still a high-priced market in the first year after launch. Negotiated reimbursement prices reflect the benefit of the drugs. After the negotiations, Germany can be considered to be a relatively low-priced market compared with other EU countries. AMNOG achieved the objective to establish cost-efficient drug prices. Copyright ©, Georg Thieme Verlag KG. All rights reserved. Source

Petkovic D.,Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

Several database systems have implemented temporal data support, partly according to the model specified in the last SQL standard and partly according to other, older temporal models. In this article we use the most important temporal concepts to investigate their implementations in enterprise database systems. Also, we discuss strengths and weaknesses of these implementations and give suggestions for future extensions. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Source

Petkovic D.,Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences
2nd International Conference on Advances in Databases, Knowledge, and Data Applications, DBKDA 2010 | Year: 2010

The article explores the optimization of queries using genetic algorithms and compares it with the conventional query optimization component. Genetic algorithms (GAs), as a data mining technique, have been shown to be a promising technique in solving the ordering of join operations in large join queries. In practice, a genetic algorithm has been implemented in the PostgreSQL database system. Using this implementation, we compare the conventional component for an exhaustive search with the corresponding module based on a genetic algorithm. Our results show that the use of a genetic algorithm is a viable solution for optimization of large join queries, i.e., that the use of such a module outperforms the conventional query optimization component for queries with more than 12 join operations. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Petkovic D.,Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2015

Time is generally a challenging task. All issues in relation to time can be better supported using a temporal data model than implementing them in user applications. More than two-dozen temporal data models have been introduced in time period between 1982 and 1998. After several years of stagnancy, the last couple of years brought the new revival of the topic and the emergence of new data models. Two temporal data models have been specified recently. The one is the SQL:2011 standard, published in 2011. The second one is from Teradata. In this article we present the temporal data model of the ANSI SQL standard on one side and the data model of an existing relational DBMS on the other. After that, we compare their support of several temporal concepts. Finally, we discuss strengths and weaknesses of both models and give suggestions for future extensions. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source

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