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Thiant S.,Maisonneuve Rosemont Research Center | Thiant S.,University of Montréal | Moutuou M.M.,Maisonneuve Rosemont Research Center | Moutuou M.M.,University of Montréal | And 3 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2016

For numerous patients, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the only therapeutic option that could potentially cure their disease. Despite significant progress made in clinical management of allogeneic SCT, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains the second cause of death after disease recurrence. aGVHD is highly immunosuppressive and the adverse effect of allogeneic SCT on T cell regeneration is typically more important than the levels of immunosuppression normally seen after autologous SCT. In these patients, immune reconstitution often takes several years to occur and restoring immunocompetence after allogeneic SCT represents an important challenge, principally because clinical options are limited and current methods used to accelerate immune reconstitution are associated with increased GVHD. Interleukin-7 and IL-15 are both under clinical investigation and demonstrate the greatest potential on peripheral T cells regeneration in mice and humans. However, awareness has been raised about the use of IL-7 and IL-15 after allogeneic SCT with regards to potential adverse effects on aGVHD. In this review, we will discuss about recent progress made in lymphocyte regeneration, the critical role played by IL-7 and IL-15 in T cell homeostasis and how these cytokines could be used to improve immune reconstitution after allogeneic SCT. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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