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Silva V.,University of Aveiro | Crowley H.,EUCENTRE | Varum H.,University of Aveiro | Pinho R.,University of Pavia | Sousa R.,ROSE Programme
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics | Year: 2014

The recognition of fragility and vulnerability functions as a fundamental tool in seismic risk assessment has led to the development of more and more complex and elaborate procedures for their computation. Although these functions have been traditionally produced using observed damage and loss data, more recent studies propose the employment of analytical methodologies as a way to overcome the frequent lack of post-earthquake data. The variation of the structural modelling approach on the estimation of building capacity has been the target of many studies in the past; however, its influence on the resulting vulnerability model for classes of buildings, the impact in loss estimations or propagation of the uncertainty to the seismic risk calculations has so far been the object of limited scrutiny. In this paper, an extensive study of static and dynamic procedures for estimating the nonlinear response of buildings has been carried out to evaluate the impact of the chosen methodology on the resulting capacity, fragility, vulnerability and risk outputs. Moreover, the computational effort and numerical stability provided by each approach have been evaluated and conclusions drawn regarding the optimal balance between accuracy and complexity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

O'Reilly G.J.,ROSE Programme | Sullivan T.J.,University of Pavia
Journal of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2015

A series of eccentrically braced frames (EBF) are designed and subjected to nonlinear analyses to highlight ambiguities and differences in current seismic design provisions for EBF structures. This provides motivation to implement better guidance for the checking of local displacement demand considerations and move towards a displacement-based design approach. A recently proposed direct displacement-based design (DDBD) procedure for EBFs is then described and further developed in this article through the calibration of a spectral displacement reduction factors that relate the displacement of an inelastically responding structure to that of the equivalent linear representation used in the DDBD of EBFs. Such an expression is calibrated as part of this study using an experimentally validated numerical model also proposed here for the EBF links such that the actual hysteretic behavior of the links is well represented. The DDBD guidelines are applied to EBF systems from 1–15 stories in height and their performance is verified via nonlinear dynamic analyses using two different sets of design spectrum compatible ground motions. The results of the study indicate the robustness of the proposed DDBD method in limiting the interstory drifts to design limits for a variety of EBF systems with short links, thus demonstrating that the proposed DDBD method is an effective tool for seismic design of EBFs. © 2015, Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved.

Welch D.P.,ROSE Programme | Sullivan T.J.,University of Pavia | Calvi G.M.,IUSS Pavia
Journal of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014

Various loss assessment methodologies have been proposed and developed over the past decades to provide risk assessment on a regional scale. There is an increasing need, however, to provide engineers with practical tools for building-specific loss assessment. Recently, progress has been made towards probabilistic loss models such as the PEER framework. However, as comprehensive probabilistic methodologies could be too complex for practicing engineers, this article presents a simplified probabilistic loss assessment methodology that builds on a direct displacement-based framework. The methodology is tested via examination of two RC frame buildings and encouragingly shows similar results to the PEER methodology. © 2014 Copyright A. S. Elnashai.

Nievas C.I.,ROSE Programme | Sullivan T.J.,University of Pavia | Sullivan T.J.,European Center for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2015

While quite extensive research has been undertaken during the last decades to extend the direct displacement-based design (DDBD) method to a wide range of structural types and materials, it is recognized that there are still some areas requiring further study and development. Steel structures and, more specifically, steel moment resisting frames with setbacks are one of these and, therefore, this work aims to investigate the seismic response of such structures designed according to the DDBD procedure currently prescribed for regular frames and to elaborate specific recommendations based on the results obtained. The main aspects to be considered are the adequacy of the displacement profile and higher mode reduction factor to be used, as well as the suitable strength distribution required. In a trial application of the current DDBD procedure, two two-dimensional 12-storey frames with setbacks are designed, and the solutions obtained are used to develop models of the structures, which are then subject to a series of non-linear time-history analyses at increasing levels of intensity, using spectrum-compatible scaled accelerograms. The results obtained are contrasted with those of Karavasilis et al. (J Constr Steel Res 64:644–654, 2008), which were developed for steel frames designed via code methods. It is recognized that the DDBD method can benefit from the expressions developed by these authors, and recommendations for the adjustment of the DDBD higher mode reduction factors are subsequently proposed. The efficacy of the latter is evaluated by the design and verification at a range of diverse intensities of a set of two-dimensional frames of 6, 9 and 12 storeys, and satisfactory outcomes are obtained. These results have been fundamental in revealing the need for future research regarding the influence of the design spectral shapes, ductility demand and P-Delta instability in the dynamic amplification of drifts due to higher mode effects. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Fox M.J.,ROSE Programme | Sullivan T.J.,University of Pavia | Beyer K.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Journal of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014

Capacity design aims to ensure controlled ductile response of structures when subjected to earthquakes. This article investigates the performance of existing capacity design equations for reinforced concrete coupled walls and then proposes a new simplified capacity design method based on state-of-the-art knowledge. The new method is verified through a case study in which a set of 15 coupled walls are subject to nonlinear time-history analyses. The article includes examination of the maximum shear force in individual walls in relation to the total maximum shear force in the coupled wall system, and subsequently provides recommendations for design. © 2014 A. S. Elnashai.

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