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Pieterse C.M.J.,University Utrecht | Zamioudis C.,University Utrecht | Berendsen R.L.,University Utrecht | Weller D.M.,University Utrecht | And 3 more authors.
Annual Review of Phytopathology | Year: 2014

Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. A wide variety of root-associated mutualists, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma, and mycorrhiza species sensitize the plant immune system for enhanced defense without directly activating costly defenses. This review focuses on molecular processes at the interface between plant roots and ISR-eliciting mutualists, and on the progress in our understanding of ISR signaling and systemic defense priming. The central role of the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 in the onset of ISR and the role of phytohormones and defense regulatory proteins in the expression of ISR in aboveground plant parts are highlighted. Finally, the ecological function of ISR-inducing microbes in the root microbiome is discussed. ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Yan G.,Oregon State University | Smiley R.W.,Oregon State University | Okubara P.A.,Root Disease and Biological Control Research Unit
Phytopathology | Year: 2012

The root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus thornei is one of the most important pests restricting productivity of wheat in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). It is laborious and difficult to use microscopy to count and identify the nematodes in soils. A SYBR Green I-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect and quantify this species from DNA extracts of soil. A primer set, designed from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) of rDNA, was highly specific to P. thornei and did not amplify DNA from 27 isolates of other Pratylenchus spp., other nematodes, and six fungal species present in PNW wheat fields. A standard curve relating threshold cycle and log values of nematode number was generated from artificially infested soils. The standard curve was supported by a high correlation between the numbers of P. thornei added to soil and the numbers quantified using realtime PCR. Examination of 15 PNW dryland field soils and 20 greenhouse samples revealed significant positive correlations between the numbers determined by real-time PCR and by the Whitehead tray and microscopic method. Real-time PCR is a rapid, sensitive alternative to time-consuming nematode extractions, microscopic identification, and counting of P. thornei from field and greenhouse soils. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Weller D.M.,Root Disease and Biological Control Research Unit | Mavrodi D.V.,Washington State University | Van Pelt J.A.,University Utrecht | Pieterse C.M.J.,University Utrecht | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2012

Pseudomonas fluorescens strains that produce the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) are among the most effective rhizobacteria that suppress root and crown rots, wilts, and damping-off diseases of a variety of crops, and they play a key role in the natural suppressiveness of some soils to certain soilborne pathogens. Root colonization by 2,4-DAPG-producing P. fluorescens strains Pf-5 (genotype A), Q2-87 (genotype B), Q8r1-96 (genotype D), and HT5-1 (genotype N) produced induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 against bacterial speck caused by P. syringae pv. tomato. The ISR-eliciting activity of the four bacterial genotypes was similar, and all genotypes were equivalent in activity to the well-characterized strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. The 2,4-DAPG biosynthetic locus consists of the genes phlHGF and phlACBDE. phlD or phlBC mutants of Q2-87 (2,4-DAPG minus) were significantly reduced in ISR activity, and genetic complementation of the mutants restored ISR activity back to wild-type levels. A phlF regulatory mutant (overproducer of 2,4-DAPG) had ISR activity equivalent to the wild-type Q2-87. Introduction of DAPG into soil at concentrations of 10 to 250 μM 4 days before challenge inoculation induced resistance equivalent to or better than the bacteria. Strain Q2-87 induced resistance on transgenic NahG plants but not on npr1-1, jar1, and etr1 Arabidopsis mutants. These results indicate that the antibiotic 2,4-DAPG is a major determinant of ISR in 2,4-DAPGproducing P. fluorescens, that the genotype of the strain does not affect its ISR activity, and that the activity induced by these bacteria operates through the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-dependent signal transduction pathway. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Kwak Y.-S.,Washington State University | Kwak Y.-S.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Bakker P.A.H.M.,University Utrecht | Glandorf D.C.M.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | And 3 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2010

Dark pigmented fungi of the Gaeumannomyces-Phialophora complex were isolated from the roots of wheat grown in fields in eastern Washington State. These fungi were identified as Phialophora spp. on the basis of morphological and genetic characteristics. The isolates produced lobed hyphopodia on wheat coleoptiles, phialides, and hyaline phialospores. Sequence comparison of internal transcribed spacer regions indicated that the Phialophora isolates were clearly separated from other Gaeumannomyces spp. Primers AV 1 and AV3 amplified 1.3-kb portions of an avenacinase-like gene in the Phialophora isolates. Phylogenetic trees of the avenacinase-like gene in the Phialophora spp. also clearly separated them from other Gaeumannomyces spp. The Phialophora isolates were moderately virulent on wheat and barley and produced confined black lesions on the roots of wild oat and two oat cultivars. Among isolates tested for their sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), the 90% effective dose values were 11.9 to 48.2 μg ml-1. A representative Phialophora isolate reduced the severity of take-all on wheat caused by two different isolates of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. To our knowledge, this study provides the first report of an avenacinase-like gene in Phialophora spp. and demonstrated that the fungus is significantly less sensitive to 2,4-DAPG than G. graminis var. tritici. Source

Yang M.-M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang M.-M.,Washington State University | Wen S.-S.,Washington State University | Mavrodi D.V.,University of Southern Mississippi | And 5 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2014

Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07, previously isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat grown in Hebei province, China, suppresses the soilborne disease of wheat take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. We report here that strain HC1-07 also suppresses Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8. Strain HC1-07 produced a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) with a molecular weight of 1,126.42 based on analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Extracted CLP inhibited the growth of G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro. To determine the role of this CLP in biological control, plasposon mutagenesis was used to generate two nonproducing mutants, HC1-07viscB and HC1-07prtR2. Analysis of regions flanking plasposon insertions in HC1-07prtR2 and HC1-07viscB revealed that the inactivated genes were similar to prtR and viscB, respectively, of the well-described biocontrol strain P. fluorescens SBW25 that produces the CLP viscosin. Both genes in HC1-07 were required for the production of the viscosinlike CLP. The two mutants were less inhibitory to G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro and reduced in ability to suppress take-all. HC1- 07viscB but not HC-07prtR2 was reduced in ability to suppress Rhizoctonia root rot. In addition to CLP production, prtR also played a role in protease production. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

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