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Chicago, IL, United States

Roosevelt University is a coeducational, private university with campuses in Chicago, Illinois and Schaumburg, Illinois. Founded in 1945, the university is named in honor of both former President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. The university's curriculum is based on principles of social justice. The university enrolls around 7,000 students between its undergraduate and graduate programs and is ranked #81 in U.S. News & World Report "Midwest Universities -2012". Roosevelt is also home to the Chicago College of Performing Arts. The University's newest academic building, Wabash, is located in The Loop of Downtown Chicago. It is the tallest educational building in Chicago, the second tallest educational building in the United States, and the sixth-largest academic complex in the world. President Charles R. Middleton was inaugurated in 2002. Wikipedia.

Wexelman B.A.,Roosevelt University
Preventing chronic disease

Death certificates contain critical information for epidemiology, public health research, disease surveillance, and community health programs. In most teaching hospitals, resident physicians complete death certificates. The objective of this study was to examine the experiences and opinions of physician residents in New York City on the accuracy of the cause-of-death reporting system. In May and June 2010, we conducted an anonymous, Internet-based, 32-question survey of all internal medicine, emergency medicine, and general surgery residency programs (n = 70) in New York City. We analyzed data by type of residency and by resident experience in reporting deaths. We defined high-volume respondents as those who completed 11 or more death certificates in the last 3 years. A total of 521 residents from 38 residency programs participated (program response rate, 54%). We identified 178 (34%) high-volume respondents. Only 33.3% of all respondents and 22.7% of high-volume residents believed that cause-of-death reporting is accurate. Of all respondents, 48.6% had knowingly reported an inaccurate cause of death; 58.4% of high-volume residents had done so. Of respondents who indicated they reported an inaccurate cause, 76.8% said the system would not accept the correct cause, 40.5% said admitting office personnel instructed them to "put something else," and 30.7% said the medical examiner instructed them to do so; 64.6% cited cardiovascular disease as the most frequent diagnosis inaccurately reported. Most resident physicians believed the current cause-of-death reporting system is inaccurate, often knowingly documenting incorrect causes. The system should be improved to allow reporting of more causes, and residents should receive better training on completing death certificates. Source

Mardulyn P.,Roosevelt University
Molecular Ecology

Phylogenetic trees and networks are both used in the scientific literature to display DNA sequence variation at the intraspecific level. Should we rather use trees or networks? I argue that the process of inferring the most parsimonious genealogical relationships among a set of DNA sequences should be dissociated from the problem of displaying this information in a graph. A network graph is probably more appropriate than a strict consensus tree if many alternative, equally most parsimonious, genealogies are to be included. Within the maximum parsimony framework, current phylogenetic inference and network-building algorithms are both unable to guarantee the finding of all most parsimonious (MP) connections. In fact, each approach can find MP connections that the other does not. Although it should be possible to improve at least the maximum parsimony approach, current implementations of these algorithms are such that it is advisable to use both approaches to increase the probability of finding all possible MP connections among a set of DNA sequences. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Laferrere B.,Roosevelt University
International Journal of Obesity

Gastric bypass surgery (GBP) results in important and sustained weight loss and remarkable improvement of Type 2 diabetes. The favorable change in the incretin gut hormones is thought to be responsible, in part, for diabetes remission after GBP, independent of weight loss. However, the relative role of the change in incretins and of weight loss is difficult to differentiate. After GBP, the plasma concentrations of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide increase postprandially by three-to fivefold. The postprandial incretin effect on insulin secretion, blunted in diabetes, improves rapidly after the surgery. In addition to the change in incretins, the pattern of insulin secretion in response to oral glucose changes after GBP, with recovery of the early phase and significant decrease in postprandial glucose levels. These changes were not seen after an equivalent weight loss by diet. The improved insulin release and glucose tolerance after GBP were shown by others to be blocked by the administration of a GLP-1 antagonist, demonstrating that the favorable metabolic changes after GBP are, in part, GLP-1 dependent. The improved incretin levels and effect persist years after GBP, but their long-term effect on glucose metabolism, and on hypoglycemia post GBP are yet unknown. Understanding the mechanisms by which incretin release is exaggerated postprandially after GBP may help develop new less invasive treatment options for obesity and diabetes. Changes in rate of eating, gastric emptying, intestinal transit time, nutrient absorption and sensing, as well as bile acid metabolism, may all be implicated. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Farmer S.,Roosevelt University
Environment and Planning A

This paper examines how neoliberal urbanization has transformed the role of public transportation into an entrepreneurial tool that creates place - based advantages for capital in global cities. Using Chicago, USA as a case study, I examine new transit - construction projects focused on Chicago's downtown Central Areaöthe Express Airport Service and Circle Lineöto demonstrate how public transit infrastructure is increasingly deployed as a means to attract global capital as well as enhance affluent residents' and tourists' rights to the city. I contrast these projects to the lack of new public transit investment for areas outside of Chicago's downtown global city showcase zone. Declining service levels and unreliable transit infrastructure due to the neoliberal retrenchment in the public sector are also constricting working people's right to the city. Taken together, these trends express the nature of uneven public transit development emerging in the neoliberal city of Chicago. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source

Evidence on the role of information and knowledge for policy making shows that policy actors seldom use information as a direct input to their decisions. Similar patterns of (non)use have been identified in the case of indicators in the environmental and sustainable development policy domains. The objective of the paper is to elucidate the patterns of environmental indicator use and to argue for the introduction of a 'politics of policy indicators'. With a limited set of characteristics (e.g. legitimacy, credibility and salience) of indicators, which help to apprehend the usability of indicators, we argue that the usability profile of indicators can be analysed as a matter of construction and deliberation by indicator creators and policy actors. The performance of indicators as policy tools - as rendered with their usability profile - is co-dependent of the institutional embeddedness of the indicators. Our conclusion makes the case that if environmental improvements towards more sustainability are partly relying on the quality and uptake of information into policy processes in order to steer decisions, then the 'usability profile' of indicators itself should be subject to collective and conscious steering. This call to 'steer the steering' is supported by the wider calls to initiate patterns of 'reflexive governance' within the sustainability policy domain. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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