Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital

Lexington, KY, United States

Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital

Lexington, KY, United States

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Lassaline M.,University of California at Davis | Cranford T.L.,University of South Carolina | Latimer C.A.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital | Bellone R.R.,University of California at Davis
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

Objective: To describe the prevalence of LSCC in Haflinger horses and to analyze affected horses' pedigrees investigating the genetic mode of inheritance. Animals: Fifteen horses met inclusion criterion of (i) being of the Haflinger breed, as confirmed by North American Haflinger Registry pedigree and (ii) being diagnosed with LSCC, as confirmed by clinical examination by a veterinary ophthalmologist or by histopathology. Pedigrees could not be obtained for four additional horses diagnosed with LSCC that had been identified as Haflingers. Procedure: Retrospective medical record review of all 19 horses was used to determine patient sex and age at diagnosis. The four-generation pedigrees available for 15 of the horses were used to perform pedigree analysis. Results: Average age of 19 Haflingers at diagnosis with LSCC was 8.7 years. Eleven were males and eight were females. Thirteen of 15 affected horses for whom pedigrees were available shared a common ancestor within five generations, and all 15 shared a common ancestor from the A stallion line in the breed pedigree. Pedigree analysis identified a common sire of two of the affected male horses. Clinical examination of this sire that had no history of LSCC showed no current clinical signs of LSCC, suggesting an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Conclusions: Haflingers may be over-represented amongst horses with LSCC and may be diagnosed at a younger age than other breeds. Affected Haflingers appear closely related, suggesting a possible heritable basis for LSCC. The genetic basis for LSCC will be investigated further by a GWAS approach. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.


Kelley D.,University of Florida | LeBlanc M.M.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital | Warren L.K.,University of Florida | Mortensen C.J.,University of Florida
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Supplementation with l-arginine can increase uterine arterial blood flow and vascular perfusion of the preovulatory follicle in mares. Increased vascular perfusion of the preovulatory follicle has been correlated with successful pregnancy in mares. The objective of this study was to determine if supplemental l-arginine would increase ovarian arterial blood flow, vascular perfusion of the preovulatory follicle, and embryo recovery rates in mares. Mares were blocked by age and breed and assigned at random within block to l-arginine supplementation or control groups. Mares were fed l-arginine beginning 17 days before and through the duration of the study. Transrectal Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure ovarian arterial blood flow and vascular perfusion of the preovulatory follicle daily when it reached 35 mm and subsequent CL on Days 2, 4, and 6. Mares, on achieving a follicle of 35 mm or more were bred via artificial insemination and an embryo collection was attempted 7 days after ovulation. Treatment did not affect interovulatory interval (arginine-treated, 18.1 ± 2.6 days; control, 20.7 ± 2.3 days) or embryo recovery rate (arginine-treated, 54%; control, 48%). Mares treated with l-arginine had a larger follicle for the 10 days preceding ovulation than control mares (30.4 ± 1.2 and 26.3 ± 1.3 mm, respectively; P < 0.05) and vascular perfusion of the dominant follicle tended (P = 0.10) to be greater for the 4 days before ovulation. No differences were observed between groups in diameter or vascular perfusion of the CL. Resistance indices, normalized to ovulation, were not significantly different between groups during the follicular or luteal phase. Oral l-arginine supplementation increased the size and tended to increase perfusion of the follicle 1, but had no effect on luteal perfusion or embryo recovery rates in mares. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Hu A.J.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital | Hu A.J.,Kirkwood Animal Hospital | Bramlage L.R.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2014

Objective-To assess postoperative probability of racing, career longevity, and convalescent time in Thoroughbred racehorses with moderate to severe superficial digital flexor tendonitis (SDFT) in the forelimbs treated by desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon (ie, superior check ligament desmotomy [SCLD]). Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-332 Thoroughbred racehorses with SDFT consecutively treated by means of SCLD. Procedures-Medical records and racing records were reviewed to assess return to racing, number of races completed, time to first race, and lifetime performance. The horses were categorized as raced or unraced prior to and after surgery. Descriptive statistics including age and treated limb were also recorded. Results-Of 332 horses, 228 (69%) returned to racing following injury and treatment. Seventy-eight of 118 (66%) horses that had not raced prior to injury and 150 of 214 (70%) horses that had raced prior to injury raced after treatment. Seventeen of 39 (44%) horses ≥ 5 years old raced following injury and treatment and 211 of 293 (72%) horses ≤ 4 years old returned to racing. There was no difference in the percentages of horses returning to racing for 2-, 3-, or 4-year olds. Postoperative infections occurred in 6 of the 332 (2%) horses. Median time to first race for horses that raced after surgery was 302 days (range, 48 to 1,120 days; mean ± SD, 341 ± 153 days), with a median of 8 starts/horse after surgery (range, 1 to 109 starts; mean ± SD, 14 ± 15.8 starts). Of 228 horses that returned to racing, 159 (70%) raced ≥ 5 times after surgery. Sex and treated limb did not have a significant effect on return to racing. However, horses ≥ 5 years old were significantly less likely to return to racing, compared with younger horses. In horses with unilateral SDFT and < 5 starts, the affected and contralateral limbs were both treated, but return to racing was not significantly different between horses treated bilaterally versus unilaterally. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-228 of 332 (69%) horses with SDFT of the forelimb treated with SCLD successfully returned to racing. Convalescent times were shorter, compared with previous recommendations, and treated horses had a longer racing career after surgery than has been described for other treatment modalities. The results of the present study support consideration of SCLD as part of a treatment plan for SDFT in Thoroughbred racehorses.


McCarrel T.M.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital | Mall N.A.,Rush University Medical Center | Lee A.S.,Rush University Medical Center | Cole B.J.,Rush University Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is expanding to numerous medical fields, including orthopedic surgery and sports medicine. The popularity of this new treatment option has prompted a rapid increase in research endeavors; however, the differences in application technique and the composition of PRP have made it difficult to compare results or make any firm conclusions regarding efficacy. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, to recommend details that should be provided in basic science and clinical PRP studies to allow meaningful comparisons between studies which may lead to a better understanding of efficacy. Second, to provide an understanding of the different PRP preparations and their clinical relevance. There are biochemical rationales for the use of PRP because it addresses several aspects of the healing process, including cell proliferation and tissue matrix regeneration, inflammation, nociception, infection, and hemostasis, all of which will be addressed. Given the current understanding of the importance the composition of PRP plays in tissue regeneration, it is likely that our future understanding of PRP will dictate 'customizing' the PRP preparation to the specific pathology of interest. The potential complications following PRP use are minor, and thus it appears to be a safe treatment option with a variety of potentially beneficial effects to injured musculoskeletal tissues. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Reed S.M.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital | Reed S.M.,University of Kentucky | Howe D.K.,University of Kentucky | Morrow J.K.,Equine Diagnostic Solutions LLC | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Recent work demonstrated the value of antigen-specific antibody indices (AI and C-value) to detect intrathecal antibody production against Sarcocystis neurona for antemortem diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Objectives: The study was conducted to assess whether the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced to a simple serum : cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titer ratio to achieve accurate EPM diagnosis. Animals: Paired serum and CSF samples from 128 horses diagnosed by postmortem examination. The sample set included 44 EPM cases, 35 cervical-vertebral malformation (CVM) cases, 39 neurologic cases other than EPM or CVM, and 10 non-neurologic cases. Methods: Antibodies against S. neurona were measured in serum and CSF pairs using the SnSAG2 and SnSAG4/3 (SnSAG2, 4/3) ELISAs, and the ratio of each respective serum titer to CSF titer was determined. Likelihood ratios and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on serum titers, CSF titers, and serum : CSF titer ratios. Results: Excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was obtained from the SnSAG2, 4/3 serum : CSF titer ratio. Sensitivity and specificity of 93.2 and 81.1%, respectively, were achieved using a ratio cutoff of ≤100, whereas sensitivity and specificity were 86.4 and 95.9%, respectively, if a more rigorous cutoff of ≤50 was used. Antibody titers in CSF also provided good diagnostic accuracy. Serum antibody titers alone yielded much lower sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The study confirms the value of detecting intrathecal antibody production for antemortem diagnosis of EPM, and they further show that the antigen-specific antibody indices can be reduced in practice to a simple serum : CSF titer ratio. © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


LeBlanc M.M.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010

Contents: Ascending placentitis is a common cause of premature birth, abortion and delivery of compromised, ill foals. Recent experimental models have investigated diagnostic procedures and treatment strategies in an attempt to improve live foal rate. Diagnostics such as transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography are used to evaluate foetal well-being and placental separation, while measurement of plasma progestins or oestrogen identifies a stressed or hypoxic foetus. Treatment is directed at stopping spread of infection, maintaining uterine quiescence and blocking production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It must be instituted early if a pregnancy is to be saved. Treatments include antibiotics, tocolytics and immunomodulators. Prompt, aggressive treatment with antibiotics has improved foal viability in experimental models of placentitis. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


LeBlanc M.M.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010

Contents: Rapid physical uterine clearance is paramount for fertility. Mares that are unable to clear the by-products of insemination or foaling quickly may develop post-mating-induced or acute endometritis. If endometritis is not promptly resolved, the infection can become chronic. Endometritis can be difficult to identify because clinical signs, ultrasonographic and laboratory findings can vary between uterine pathogens. Some micro-organisms are associated with an influx of neutrophils and fluid into the uterine lumen while others are associated with only heavy debris on cytological specimens. Identifying the inciting cause may require more than swabbing the endometrium. Culturing endometrial biopsy tissue or uterine fluids are more sensitive methods for identifying Escherichia coli than culture swab while endometrial cytology identifies twice as many mares with acute inflammation than uterine culture swab. While post-mating-induced endometritis is classically treated with uterine irrigation and ecbolics and acute endometritis is treated with either systemic or intra-uterine antibiotics, these therapies are not always effective in resolving chronic uterine inflammation or infections. Mucolytics can be used to break up mucus produced by an irritated endometrium, steroids can modulate the inflammatory response associated with insemination and buffered chelating agents can remove biofilm, a protective mechanism used primarily by gram-negative organisms and yeast to evade the host immune response. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


McCarrel T.M.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital | Minas T.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Fortier L.A.,Cornell University
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A | Year: 2012

Background: Numerous methods are available for platelet-rich plasma (PRP) generation, but evidence defining the optimum composition is lacking. We hypothesized that leukocyte-reduced PRP would result in lower inflammatory cytokine expression compared with concentrated-leukocyte PRP and that maintaining the platelet:white blood cell (WBC) ratio would compensate for the effect of increased WBC concentration. Methods: Blood and flexor digitorum superficialis tendons were collected from young adult horses. Three PRP groups were generated with the same platelet concentration but different WBC concentrations: intermediate-concentration standard PRP, leukocyte-reduced PRP, and concentrated-leukocyte PRP. An additional high-concentration PRP group was generated with the same WBC concentration as the concentrated-leukocyte PRP group and the same platelet:WBC ratio as the standard PRP group. The PRP groups were used as media for flexor digitorum superficialis tendon explants in culture for seventy-two hours with 10% plasma in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) serving as control. Tendon gene expression for collagen types I (COL1A1) and III (COL3A1), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was performed. Results: The desired PRP groups were successfully generated. The expression of COMP, the COL1A1:COL3A1 ratio, and the expression of MMP-13 in flexor digitorum superficialis tendon explants was not different between PRP groups. The expression of COMP (p = 0.0027) and the COL1A1:COL3A1 ratio (p < 0.0001) were increased in the PRP groups as compared with the control group, and the expression of MMP-13 was decreased in the PRP groups as compared with the control group (p < 0.0001). The expression of IL-1β was lowest in leukocyte-reduced PRP and highest in concentrated-leukocyte PRP (p = 0.0001). The leukocyte-reduced PRP group and the control group had the lowest TNF-α expression, whereas the high-concentration PRP and concentrated-leukocyte PRP groups had the highest expression (p = 0.0224). Conclusions: A high absolute WBC concentration in PRP contributes to the expression of inflammatory cytokines in flexor digitorum superficialis tendon explants, and maintenance of the platelet:WBC ratio is not able to counteract this effect. Clinical Relevance: The optimum composition of PRP for the treatment of tendinopathy has not been directly investigated. Persistent inflammation results in inferior repair with scar tissue. The present study indicates that in an animal model, WBC in PRP contributes to inflammatory cytokine production. Therefore, leukocyte-reduced PRP may be the optimum preparation to stimulate superior healing without scar tissue formation. Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.


Troy J.R.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital | Bergh M.S.,Iowa State University
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education | Year: 2015

Canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is the most common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. CCLR results in palpable stifle instability secondary to cranial translation of the tibial relative to the femur, and it can be diagnosed during the orthopedic exam using the cranial drawer test (CDT) and tibial compression test (TCT). Accurate diagnosis of CCLR depends on the efficacy in performing these tests. In this study, two threedimensional canine pelvic limb models were developed: one simulating a normal stifle and one simulating CCLR. Thirty-eight veterinary student participants answered questionnaires and performed both the CDT and TCT on a randomly assigned model. Twenty-one participants also manipulated the models one week later to assess skill retention in the short term. Mean levels of reported confidence in diagnosing CCLR and finding anatomic landmarks for CDT/TCT were significantly higher following model manipulation. Nearly all participants reported that they desired a model for teaching the diagnosis of CCLR. Most participants (92.5%) felt that the tested model would be useful for teaching CCLR diagnosis. Accuracy in diagnosing CCLR with the TCT significantly improved over time. Participant response indicated that while the tested model was effective and desirable, an ideal model would be more durable and lifelike. Further studies are needed to evaluate the developed models' effectiveness for teaching CCLR diagnosis compared to traditional teaching methods. © 2015 AAVMC.


Chaney K.P.,St. George's University | Holcombe S.J.,Michigan State University | Schott H.C.,Michigan State University | Barr B.S.,Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital
Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care | Year: 2010

Objectives: - To (1) determine the occurrence of spurious hypercreatininemia in a population of hospitalized foals <2 days old, (2) assess the resolution of the hypercreatininemia, and (3) determine its association with survival in these foals. Design: - Retrospective case series. Setting: - 2 Referral hospitals. Animals: - Foals <2 days old with an admission creatinine >442 μmol/L (>5.0 mg/dL) from 2 referral hospitals. Interventions: - None. Measurements and Main Results: - The medical records of 33 foals were reviewed. Twenty-eight had spurious hypercreatininemia and 5 had acute renal failure. Admission creatinine was not significantly different between the 2 groups (mean [standard deviation]). The creatinine was 1,202 μmol/L (663 μmol/L) (13.6 mg/dL [7.5 mg/dL]) versus 1,185 μmol/L (787 μmol/L) (13.4 mg/dL [8.9 mg/d]) (P=0.96) in each group, respectively, though BUN at the time of hospital admission was significantly higher for acute renal failure foals (P=0.009). In the spurious group, serum creatinine at admission decreased to 504 μmol/L (380 μmol/L) (5.7 mg/dL [4.3 mg/dL]) by 24 hours, and to 159 μmol/L (80 μmol/L) (1.8 mg/dL [0.9 mg/dL]) at 48 hours, and to 115 μmol/L (44 μmol/L) (1.3 mg/dL [0.5 mg/dL]) at 72 hours. Twenty-three of 28 foals with spurious hypercreatininemia survived to hospital discharge and there was no difference in mean admission creatinine between survivors (1176 μmol/L [628 μmol/L]) (13.3 mg/dL [7.1 mg/dL]) and nonsurvivors (1308 μmol/L [857 μmol/L]) (14.8 mg/dL [9.7 mg/dL]) (P=0.67). Twenty of 28 foals had clinical signs suggestive of neonatal encephalopathy. Conclusion: - Creatinine decreased by >50% within the initial 24 hours of standard neonatal therapy and was within the reference interval in all but 1 foal within 72 hours of hospitalization. The diagnosis of neonatal encephalopathy was common in these foals. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2010.

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