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Schreg R.,Romisch Germanisches Zentralmuseum
Arqueologia de la Arquitectura | Year: 2012

In Germany early medieval rural settlements are known from a rising number of excavated sites. Rural architecture was a wooden architecture. Only churches were built in stone. A farmstead consisted of several buildings: the main house and several economic buildings as pit houses and storages. Before the 1980s, when large scale excavations became more and more common, there was little awareness of changes in rural settlement history. The formation of still existing villages was only late in the Middle Ages. However, even today it is difficult to understand the changes in rural architecture as there are distinct regional differences. Probably the 5th century on the one hand and the period of village formation between the 10th and 13th centuries on the other hand were the most innovative periods. This article provides a short characteristic of buildings and settlement organisation. He gives an outline of research history and identifies some recent trends and future perspectives of research. Source

Strobele F.,Romisch Germanisches Zentralmuseum | Staude S.,University of Tubingen | Pfaff K.,Colorado School of Mines | Premo W.R.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 4 more authors.
Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Abhandlungen | Year: 2012

Southwest Germany hosts a variety of Permian to Cenozoic hydrothermal mineralizations of different types. Veins are most abundant, but also Mississippi-Valley type and other stratabound mineralizations are present. This contribution presents a set of Pb isotope data for ore minerals from these mineralizations as well as isotope data of possible source rocks for the Pb. We show that lead isotope ratios of the mineralizations depend on the source rocks, the age of a given mineralization and its tectonic setting. For example, Pb isotope ratios of Jurassic mineralizations show a trend to higher isotope ratios towards the south. The reason for this might be the higher exhumation rate in the southern Schwarzwald that exposes deeper crustal levels. There, the influence of radiogenic lead derived from the basement is higher during mineralization and thus, the isotope ratios rise towards the south. In-terestingly, Pb isotopes of mineralizations from the Central Schwarzwald Gneiss Complex and the Southern Schwarzwald Gneiss Complex, two different crustal blocks with a large oceanic suture in between, have significantly different Pb isotope systematics. This fact is explained by the different ages and tectonic origin of the protoliths of the two blocks. © 2012 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Stuttgart Germany. Source

Der Sarkissian C.,University of Adelaide | Balanovsky O.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Brandt G.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Khartanovich V.,Kunstkamera Museum | And 11 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. © 2013 Der Sarkissian et al. Source

Sier M.J.,Leiden University | Sier M.J.,University Utrecht | Sier M.J.,National Center for Human Evolution | Roebroeks W.,Leiden University | And 15 more authors.
Quaternary Research | Year: 2011

An interdisciplinary study of a small sedimentary basin at Neumark Nord 2 (NN2), Germany, has yielded a high-resolution record of the palaeomagnetic Blake Event, which we are able to place at the early part of the last interglacial pollen sequence documented from the same section. We use this data to calculate the duration of this stratigraphically important event at 3400. ± 350. yr. More importantly, the Neumark Nord 2 data enables precise terrestrial-marine correlation for the Eemian stage in central Europe. This shows a remarkably large time lag of ca. 5000. yr between the MIS 5e 'peak' in the marine record and the start of the last interglacial in this region. © 2010 University of Washington. Source

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