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Rāwalpindi, Pakistan

Pal R.,SZIE | Schill Judit M.,Nemzeti Elelmiszerbiztonsagi Hivatal | Ervin T.,Romer Labs
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolic products of Aspergillus fungi, first of all of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nominus. The first forms of the aflatoxins are the aflatoxin B1 and B2 that are terrible poisons, which belong to the group of ultimate carcinogens. Due to the delicate environmental requirements of Aspergillus fungi (high temperature, high humidity) up to recently the presence and significance of these fungi in countries of moderate climate had been excluded. In 2012 the Italian representative of the earlier established and effected Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) has reported the presence of aflatoxin M1 and M2 in bulk milk samples imported from Hungary. Following the alert number of Hungarian Dairy Enterprises launched investigations and found aflatoxin metabolites above the tolerable level (0.05 μg/kg) in the milk of about a dozen dairy farm. Scrutiny of the relevant literature has revealed the increasing presence of aflatoxin metabolites in bovine milk produced in Central Europe. It wasseen too, that Aspergillus infection of cereals, especially maize, has increased recently. This undesirable development has been unanimously attributed to the effects of global warming. The paper overviews the ecological demands of aspergilla, the metabolism of aflatoxins in ruminants, gives information about the growing concern of aflatoxicosis in humans and summarises the applicable analytical and preventive methods. The authors urge the acceleration of research for genetic resistance of cereals against microscopic fungi. Source

Tahira I.,Romer Labs | Tahira I.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Khatoon S.,Romer Labs | Hanif N.Q.,Romer Labs | Sultana N.,Romer Labs
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan

Present study was planned to optimize a simple and rapid quantitative chromatographic method for the determination of OTA in red chilli. The validation of methodology was carried out by spikes recoveries, inter and intraday repeatability. Mean recoveries were 92.90%, 98.33%, 96.66 and 103.60 with repeatability RSD 10.85, 16.34, 5.95 and 9.82 percent respectively and regression coefficient was 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 ng/g and 1.0 ng/g respectively. For confirmation of the efficacy of optimized method, fifteen (n=15) samples of red chilies were randomly collected and subjected to OTA analysis. This random analysis revealed that eighty percent of samples were OTA contaminated, ranging from 23- 94 ng/g. Higher incidence with elevated levels of OTA in red chilli envisages an alarming situation as red chilli is an indispensible component of daily diet. Source

Khatoon S.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Hanif N.Q.,Romer Labs | Tahira I.,Romer Labs | Sultana N.,Romer Labs | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany

A total of 65 maize grain samples, from 7 maize producing areas of Pakistan, were assayed for 14 toxicologically significant mycotoxins viz., aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), aflatoxin B2 (AfB2), aflatoxin G1 (AfG1), aflatoxin G2 (AfG2), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3A-DON), 15acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15A-DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol (NEOS) and fusarenone-x (Fus-x). Quantification was made by using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The frequently encountered mycotoxin was AfB1 - 27.69% (n=18, range: 5-850 μg kg-1; mean: 192 μg kg-1). Other mainly detected mycotoxins include AfB2 (18.46%), NIV (12.31%), DON (9.23%), and 3ac-DON (7.69%) with average values of 40, 1326, 1549, and 356 μg kg-1 respectively. DAS, T-2 and HT-2 were detected in only 9.23%, 6.15% and 6.15% of samples respectively with relatively low concentrations. A co-occurrence phenomenon was observed in 12 (18.46%) samples with a combination of two or maximum three different mycotoxins. It is a first preliminary study report dealing with 14 important mycotoxins simultaneously in maize from main maize growing areas of Pakistan. Source

Tahira I.,Romer Labs | Sultana N.,Romer Labs | Hanif N.Q.,Romer Labs | Muhammad G.,The University of Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Zoology

Eighty-four commercially available pet food samples including cat food (38 solid, 17 semi-solid) and dog food (20 solid, 9 semi-solid) were analyzed for melamine residues by competitive enzyme linked Immunosorbant assay. Among solid cat food, 78.94% (n=30) were contaminated with 14.43±1.27 (range >4-68 mg/kg) of melamine, while 82.35% samples of semi solid cat food (n=14) were found positive for melamine residue with mean value 6.43± 1.96 (range >2- 13.14mg/kg). Similarly, 75% samples of solid dog food (n=15) were positive for melamine residues with mean value 8.50±1.73 mg/kg (range >4-49mg/kg). A total of 44.44% samples of semi solid dog food were positive for melamine with mean value 16.31±1.64 range of >2-34.25mg/kg. Out of all positive samples, 53% samples of pet food were contaminated beyond the Codex Alimentarius Commission (i.e. 2.5mg/kg). Analytical data showed existence of melamine residues in imported pet food. Copyright © 2015 Zoological Society of Pakistan. Source

Radcliffe S.,Romer Labs | Sutzko M.,Romer Labs | Jiang Z.,Romer Labs | Freitag D.,Romer Labs | And 3 more authors.
Journal of AOAC International

Romer Labs®, Inc. developed an immunochromatographic lateral flow assay for the qualitative detection of gluten in raw ingredients, processed foods, finished food products, and environmental surfaces, using the G12 antibody developed by Belén Morón. The G12 antibody targets a 33-mer peptide which is resistant to enzymatic digestion and heat denaturation, as well as being the fragment of the gliadin protein to which celiac disease sufferers react, making it a reliable analytical marker. This study was performed to validate the AgraStrip® Gluten G12 assay method under the guidance of the AOAC Performance Tested MethodsSM (PTM) program against AOAC Official Method of AnalysisSM 2012.01 in rice flour, bread, cookie, ice cream, and chocolate matrixes spiked with either purified gliadin or wheat gluten standard at 0, 3, 8, 15, and 25 ppm concentrations and tested at the 5, 10, and 20 ppm assay thresholds, as well as on environmental surfaces. Stability, robustness, variation, and lot consistency studies were performed by spiking wheat gluten into a rice flour matrix at 0 and 15 ppm concentrations. The AgraStrip Gluten G12 assay was rigorously evaluated during this study and demonstrates its suitability as an AOAC PTM-certified gluten detection method. Source

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