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Metabolic changes specifically associated with cancer may constitute an excellent opportunity for the identification of new biomarkers and targets for novel drugs. The coenzyme lipoate is a key player in the control of cell metabolic fluxes and occupies a central position in tumor biology. Previous observations suggested that systemically delivered lipoate analogues might selectively disrupt cancer mitochondrial metabolism, potentially resulting in cancer cell death. CPI-613, the first member of a large set of lipoate analogues, specifically inhibits mitochondrial metabolism in a wide range of tumor cell lines, but not in normal cells, by mechanisms involving pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme complexes. There are 14 ongoing or completed phase I and phase II clinical trials on CPI-613, alone or in combination, showing promising results for several hematological malignancies and solid tumors, particularly for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and pancreatic cancer. © 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

This article describes the global investment consensus for large infrastructure under construction at international level. Via a new wave of mega projects and their related revenue streams, infrastructure is being turned into an asset class. This growing agenda, which will shape future trade and investment patters globally, represents a new phase of globalization, financialization and structural adjustment. The authors identify risks and challenges linked to this new agenda, from detrimental climate impacts to debt burden for emerging economies. © 2017 Society for International Development

Gralla E.,George Washington University | Goentzel J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Chomilier B.,Rome
Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management | Year: 2015

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze a successful training exercise in detail, through both a practical and a theoretical lens, in order to identify critical aspects of its success and enable others to build upon it; and to capture insights and lessons learned in a framework that will facilitate the design of future trainings for a variety of goals and audiences. Design/methodology/approach – The authors document and analyze the case study of a successful humanitarian logistics training exercise: the World Food Programme’s Logistics Response Team (WFP’s LRT) training. The LRT is described in detail in order to capture the extensive knowledge and experience that went into developing the full-scale, immersive exercise. Findings – The authors evaluate the LRT training through a theoretical lens, considering how it teaches the diverse set of skills required and identifying reasons for its success. The authors contrast the LRT with a light version developed for classroom use, and capture insights in a framework that highlights critical aspects of training design. Research limitations/implications – The requirements and design aspects highlighted in the framework are very high level, but they focus attention on key aspects that should be considered. Future research should develop more targeted metrics for evaluating what people learn from training exercises. More generally, a systematic approach to capturing knowledge and codifying good practices should be developed. Practical implications – The detailed case study and framework provide a basis for the design and improvement of simulated emergency training exercises, which are common in the humanitarian practice community. Originality/value – The case study of WFP’s LRT training formally documents valuable knowledge and experience that went into its development. The humanitarian community can use the proposed framework to more systematically evaluate, improve, and extend training exercises. © 2015, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Cappiello S.,Rome
European Business Organization Law Review | Year: 2015

In the last 5 years, the European institutional architecture of banking regulation and supervision has undergone sweeping changes, brought about by a number of sequential legislative initiatives. Such a ‘Copernican revolution’ naturally calls for investigating whether and how these different layers of reforms add up to (or can be interpreted in a way that ensures) an overall consistent, efficient and effective design for banking regulation and supervision. This is particularly the case for the European Banking Authority (EBA) and the Banking Union (BU), two new institutional players which in the public debate are sometimes dubbed as overlapping or even conflicting. This paper provides a critical analysis of this interplay and its components, also with the aim to provide food for thought for further exploration, from a private as well as a public law perspective. It starts from the reasons behind the foundation of the EBA and the BU, showing how these two new institutional players in fact were created to pursue two distinct and complementary goals and operate on two separate but interconnected institutional levels. The paper then dwells on the panoply of innovative regulatory tools which the EBA can deploy in order to accomplish its mission to foster maximum harmonisation and the creation of a single set of common rules (the ‘Single Rulebook’ or SR): technical standards, guidelines and recommendations, and other ‘soft law’ instruments, such as the Q&A tool. The analysis aims to stimulate further critical thinking on the scope and possible impact of these tools and their consistency within the overall European framework of legal sources. Hence, the focus moves to the main areas covered by the SR (i.e., prudential rules and resolution) and the priorities followed in its build-up, highlighting how these priorities can contribute to the effective functioning of the two current components of the BU, i.e., the SSM and the SRM. The paper concludes with some remarks on areas of possible improvement and development, underlining the need to: (i) step up the harmonisation of corporate and insolvency laws, given their impact on cross-border banking and cross-border resolution; (ii) provide more certainty on the scope and possible effects of the EBA’s mediation role; and (iii) rethink the governance of the EBA, if there is to be a more balanced interplay between national and European drivers. © 2015, T.M.C. Asser Press.

Meiswinkel R.,Rome | Elbers A.R.W.,Wageningen University
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2016

The light trap is the tool of choice for conducting large-scale Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vector surveillance programmes. Its efficacy is in doubt, however. To assess this, hourly changes in Culicoides activity over the 24-h diel were determined comparatively by way of light trapping and aerial sweeping, and correlated against light intensity. In the Netherlands, sweeping around cattle at pasture revealed that, in early summer, Culicoides are active throughout the diel, and that their abundance peaks during the crepuscular period and falls to a low during the brightest hours of the day. By contrast, the light trap was able to accumulate Culicoides only at night (i.e. after illuminance levels had dropped to 0 lux and midge activity had begun to decline). Although Culicoides chiopterus and species of the Culicoides obsoletus complex were similarly abundant around livestock, they differed critically in their hours of peak activity, being largely diurnal and nocturnal, respectively. This polarity helps to explain why, routinely, the C. obsoletus complex dominates light trap collections and C. chiopterus does not. Inability to accumulate Culicoides at light intensity levels above 0 lux means that, at ever-higher latitudes, particularly beyond 45° N, the progressive northward lengthening of the twilight period will have an increasingly adverse impact upon the efficacy of the light trap as a vector surveillance tool. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

Bethe H.,Rome
European Physical Journal H | Year: 2014

From the theory of Møller [Møller, Chr. 1931. Über den Stoß zweier Teilchen unterBerücksichtigung der Retardation der Kräfte. Zeitschrift f. Phys.70: 786–795] the energy loss of electrons with relativistic speedspassing through matter is derived. The energy loss per centimeter of distance reaches aminimum at about 96% of the speed of light and increases again at higher speeds; forelectrons of several billion Volt it is about 4 million Volt per centimeter of water. Atable of the theoretical energy loss for electrons and protons of various speeds isgiven. © 2014, EDP Sciences and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bianco V.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Granati S.,Rome
Engineering Structures | Year: 2015

Recent earthquakes that have struck Italian territory have emphasized the necessity to assess the seismic safety of the existing built heritage, comprising, for a substantial part, Reinforced Concrete (RC) buildings designed between the 50. s and 80. s. Those buildings were designed in accordance with regulations that, although showing a growing seismic awareness, were certainly inadequate to design buildings capable to withstand the design earthquakes prescribed by the more recent Italian Technical Standards for Constructions (NTC 2008). At the same time, the recent proposal made by the technical community to equip each existing building with a seismic suitability certificate encourages the development of a rapid method for seismic safety assessment. This paper presents a method to carry out a simplified and fast non-linear static seismic assessment of an existing RC building. This method is based on: (a) the selection of the RC elements that, based on engineering judgment, are expected to be the most vulnerable ones, and on (b) the subsequent evaluation of the structure displacement capacity corresponding to their failure. Simple and conservative plane structural models are proposed to carry out such evaluations. With the aim to appraise its potentialities, the proposed procedure is also applied to some RC buildings whose experimental and numerical results were published in the latest scientific literature. Strengths, weaknesses and possible further developments are highlighted. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Pagliani P.,Rome
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

Some notes about the state-of-the-art of Rough Set Theory are discussed, and some future research topics are suggested as well. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Lusetti V.,Rome
Dynamische Psychiatrie | Year: 2014

Cannibalism posed a serious threat to the survival of the human race and generated sexual and social responses, especially of a linguistic-symbolic type. Once developed in order to deter cannibalism, however, sexuality and sociality then took it over and created a 'circuit' with it. The circular relationship between cannibalism and anti-cannibal response led to sexual perversions and forms of systematic incest, which necessitated the institution of a taboo. It then created hallucinatory-delirious phenomena and the symbolic codes of guilt and war. War again places the species in danger of extinction. The inadequacy of the anti-cannibal responses of a religious and ritual nature is shown by the crisis of religions, dangerous when repressive and hyperritual, powerless when they are not.

This essay reports on the temporary and unpaid forms of labour around which the 2015 World’s Fair (Expo 2015) in Milan is organized and upon which it depends. The collective agreement supporting Expo 2015 is especially significant, the paper contends, in that it has been seized upon by the government of Matteo Renzi as a blueprint for the future of labour relations in Italy. Expo 2015 ushers in the institutionalization of unpaid work in the crisis-stricken Italian economy-a transformation approved by the major Italian trade unions that signed off on the collective agreement, but forcefully opposed by social movements who have decried the expansion of unpaid work permitted by the contract. © 2015, Unified Theory of Information Research Group. All rights reserved.

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