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Halmagyi A.,Romanian Institute of Biological Research | Deliu C.,Romanian Institute of Biological Research | Isac V.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Two droplet procedures, droplet-vitrification (PVS2) and droplet (DMSO) were applied for cryopreservation of in vitro cultured apple (Malus domestica Borkh., cvs. Florina, Idared, Colmar and Rebra) plants. The highest post-thaw regrowth rates (70% for cv. Florina, 66% for cv. Idared, 63% for cv. Colmar and 60% for cv. Rebra) were achieved after using the droplet-vitrification (PVS2) protocol. The excised shoot tips (2-3 mm in length) were precultured in 0.5 M sucrose enriched media for 24 h. Subsequently they were transferred in PVS2 vitrification solution for 30 or 40 min (depending on cultivar) at 24 °C and then immersed in liquid nitrogen. Rewarming was performed in liquid MS medium at 24 °C. Plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips did not display any sign of morphological alteration or abnormalities in growth in comparison with control plants. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mateescu E.,National Meteorological Administration
International Agrophysics | Year: 2012

The paper deals with the trend for Penman- Monteith reference evapotranspiration and climatic water deficit during the first decade of the 21st century in Southern Romania vs the 20th century. For the first half of the year the monthly evapotranspiration values were higher for the first decade of the 21st century vs the means of the 20th century. However, the trend reverses for the second half of the year, but for the whole year the totals were higher for the first decade of the 21st century vs the totals of the 20th century. The yearly temperature means in the first decade of the XXI century showed an increase in the three locations studied, respectively, vs century XX. This warming is responsible to a great extent for the increase in evapotranspiration, and the relationship between evapotranspiration and temperature was highly significant. Water deficit decreased in Constanta and Pitesti, but there was a slight increase in water deficit in the same period in Bucharest-Baneasa. Water deficit increased in the first half of the year and decreased in the second half during the first decade of century XXI in all the three locations investigated vs century XX. © 2012 Institute of Agrophysic.

Florea A.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Teodorescu A.,University of Pitesti
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2012

The worldwide trend of plantations fertilization imposed a new concept in this field. On one hand, it was abandoned the idea of using large amounts of fertilizer to force the obtaining of high yields, and on the other hand, increasingly require more and more application of organic and unpolluted fertilizers. In practice, the nutritional control of strawberry is very difficult, because a large number of factors influence the absorption and availability of nutrients through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Aim is to establish concrete measures for improving crop technology by applying optimum dose of fertilizers, leading to increased productivity and fruit quality of strawberry culture. The research was conducted during 2009-2010, in a two-way experience. It was located at the Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti. Experimental factors were: A -cultivars: a1 -'Onebor', a2 -'Real', a3 -'Elsanta', a4 -'Mira', a5 -'Alba', a6 -'Premial'; B -Fertilizer with 6 graduations: b1 -unfertilized, and for graduations b2 -b6 were applied mixtures of the below fertilizers the amounts becoming increasingly larger, thus: b2 -6.4 kg / ha / week, b3 -14.3 kg / ha / week, b4 -21.4 kg / ha / week, b5 -28.5 kg / ha / week and b6 -35.8 kg / ha / week. The fertilizers applied were: Polyfeed (N19: P19: K19), K nitrate (N12: P0: K43: Mg2) and Magnesia (N11: P0: K0: Mg15). Mixtures were applied at 2 weeks intervals, as follows: 1 April to 15 May (flowering), 2 applications, containing macroelements N: P: K: Mg 14:6,3:20,7:5,7 g / 100 g mixed fertilizers, May 15-June 15 (in the picking period), 2 applications of N: P: K: Mg 10,2:6,3:13,5:2,83 g/100 g blend fertilizer and August 1 to September 15 (2 applications) with N: P: K: Mg 12,2:6,3:20,7:31,6 g/100 g mixed fertilizers. Following determinations were made: average weight of fruit (g) by weighing a sample of 250 fruits, fruit soluble dry matter (%), refractive, total acidity (g of Malic acid/100 g fresh matter) iodometric method. Experimental treatments have led to differences in the acidity of the fruit. Thus, the analysis of fertilizer doses on the chemical components of the fruits of the six studied cultivars, we concluded that V5 and V6 treatments had a positive influence on pH of the fruits of 'Premial' cv. (3.460), 'Elsanta' (3.400) and 'Mira' (3.460). Treatments induced also, highest average fruit weight in variety 'Mira' (45,025 g), weight varies as compared to the control (32.795 g) and from other experimental versions of the same variety. Average dose of fertilizer belonging V4 and V5 variants showed the highest values of fruit dry matter content of the variety 'Premial' (65.55%), respectively (7.570%), higher values the witness variant and other variants analyzed.

Plopa C.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Preda S.,University of Craiova
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) produces variable symptoms on infected apple both in the nursery and in orchard. Severe strains of the virus can induce severe necrosis and reduce the production of fruit buds by 20-40%. Obtaining ApMV-free plants in apple was tested by using meristem culture. The research was conducted on three virus infected: 'Golden Delicious', 'Golden Spur' and 'Lord Lambourne'. Identification of the virus was done by DAS-ELISA serological test and bioassay Cucumis sativus plant, which produced chlorotic lesions on cotyledons. Infected biological material was inoculated on QL culture media with the growth regulators 0.01 mg/L IBA and 0.3 mg/L GA3. Explants had two dimensions: 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm. Multiplication phase was achieved on MS culture medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L ANA. Rooting was conducted on MS medium with two growth regulators 2 mg/L IBA and 0,5 mg/L GA3. After rooting of the plants from root meristems of 0.3 mm, diagnosed viral testing was positive for 58% of 'Golden Delicious' variety, 52% for the variety 'Lord Lambourne' and 50% for the variety 'Golden Spur'. Plants derived from meristems of 1 mm in size were diagnosed infected at a rate of 83% in 'Golden Delicious' variety, 80% in 'Lord Lambourne' and 77% for the 'Golden Spur' variety.

Isac V.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mladin Gh.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Lonicera caerulea is a honeysuckle native throughout the cool temperature Northern Hemisphere. It was introduced in Romania for research purposes in 1988 and the interest for this species increased because of its fruit biochemical content and economic value. We have developed in vitro propagation biotechnology for rapid shoot multiplication of two honeysuckles (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) cultivars 'Loni' and 'Cera', released in Romania in 2003. These cultivars were highlighted to be approved and extended in production for both dessert and fruit processing industries. Cultures were started by using actively growing shoots from field grown shrubs. Buds were surface sterilized with ethanol and calcium hypochlorite. The best initiation medium for both Lonicera cultivars was Quoirin & Lepoivre (QL) basal salt mixture and Linsmaier & Skoog (LS) vitamins, containing 0.1 mg/L GA3, and 1mg/L IBA. Multiplication rate varied depending on the cultivar and growth regulators concentrations. The highest multiplication rate was obtained using 1 mg/L BAP and 0.05 mg/L GA3. Excised axillary shoots were rooted in vitro in presence of IBA. Microshoots rooted differently depending on the treatment and cultivar. In case of 'Loni' cultivar 89.6% rooting was achieved by treatment with 1 mg/L IBA and 162 mg/L PG when Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal nutrient medium was used. The plantlets were subsequently transferred into different substrates for acclimatization. This research showed that two Lonicera cultivars responded differently in culture. 'Loni' cultivar was more prolific than 'Cera' in the conditions tested.

Butac M.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Botu M.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Zagrai I.,Research Station for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

In Romania, the plum has been and will continue be the most grown fruit species. This is explained by its high environmental adaptation, ease of breeding, rusticity of local cultivars, favourable weather conditions and various ways of marketing that are available. From the cultivar point of view, the local cultivars, those intended particularly for distillation purposes represent the majority, but there have always been cultivars fit both for the fresh market and for processing (e.g., 'Tuleu gras', 'Grase romanesti', 'Vinete romanesti'). With this regard in view, since the middle of the 19th century the plum assortment in Romania has been modernized, developing new autochtononous cultivars and also introducing foreign cultivars regarded as better ones and suitable for adaptation under Romanian ecological conditions. The Romanian plum breeding was started 50 years ago and has had the following objectives: improvement of the old autochthonous cultivars ('Tuleu gras', 'Grase romanesti' and 'Vinete romanesti'); development of various cultivars with different ripening times and with high quality fruit, designated both for the fresh market and for processing; obtaining late blooming cultivars resistant to the late spring frosts, with virus disease resistance or tolerance (particularly to the Plum pox virus) as well as with low vigour and spur fruiting. The breeding has been carried out in the following plum centers: Pitesti, Valcea, Voinesti, Strejesti and Bistrita - areas with favourable climatic conditions for plum culture. As a result of this breeding program, 37 plum cultivar varieties were registered: 'Agent', 'Albatros', 'Alina', 'Baragan 17', 'Carpatin', 'Centenar', 'Dambovita', 'Diana', 'Flora', 'Gras ameliorat', 'Ialomita', 'Minerva', 'Pescarus', 'Pitestean', 'Renclod de Caransebes', 'Roman', 'Sarmatic', 'Silvia', 'Superb', 'Tita', 'Tuleu dulce', 'Tuleu timpuriu', 'Vinete romanesti cl. 300' (Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti-Maracineni); 'Dani', 'Delia', 'Doina', 'Elena', 'Geta', 'Iulia', 'Ivan', 'Jubileu 50', 'Matilda', 'Romaner', 'Zamfira' (Research Station for Fruit Growing Bistrita), 'Andreea', 'Valcean' (Research Station for Fruit Growing Valcea) and 'Record' (Research Station for Fruit Growing Voinesti).

Paltineanua C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Tanasescu N.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The paper describes the lower base line (LBL) and upper base line (UBL) for apple orchards and the relationships between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the soil moisture content (SMC) in a loamy soil. The experiment was carried out at Pitesti-Maracineni, southern Romania, during two growing seasons, in an apple orchard 12 years old, with cultivar 'Idared' grafted on M9 rootstock. The lower base line was drawn as a regression equation between the apple crop and air temperature difference versus the vapor pressure deficit. The CWSI mainly ranged between 0.10 and 0.80. The relationship between CWSI and the soil moisture content is inverse and highly significant but with low R 2 (0.392). Soil variability, intermittent cloudiness and agronomic factors could be responsible for this correlation. The practical recommendation in irrigation scheduling of this orchard is that CWSI values of 0.20 to 0.30 indicate the need for application of 500 to 700 m 3 ha -1 irrigation under the specific conditions of the region.

Zagrai I.,Fruit Research and Development Station | Zagrai L.,Fruit Research and Development Station | Butac M.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The use of resistant cultivars is considered to be the most efficient solution to control Plum pox virus (PPV). The identification of new potential sources of PPV resistance in plum germplasm remains important for the future development of new cultivars due to the paucity of naturally occurring resistance reported so far. Two plum selections named 'Local de Dragasani' and 'Dunarea albastra' respectively, grown within the experimental plum orchard with high inoculum pressure with PPV-D and PPV-Rec strains, have remained PPV free during a period of 17 years. When artificially inoculated in greenhouse conditions with PPV-D or PPV-Rec, a typical hypersensitivity response was observed on 'Local de Dragasani'. Because the effectiveness of hypersensitivity against PPV is still under controversy, additional studies are requested. The behavior of 'Dunarea albastra' under high natural inoculum pressure with PPV also showed a particular interest. Is this selection a potential candidate for PPV resistance? Artificial inoculation needs to be performed to obtain pertinent conclusions. Studies on resistance to PPV of the two plum selections are going to be expanded.

Budan S.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Taking into account a strong local tradition for the consumption of bitter cherry jam, the national program for the breeding of this cherry type included, as a specific objective, identifying, collecting, and evaluating the most valuable biotypes of cherry with bitter fruits taste in the spontaneous and semi-cultivated flora and registering them as a crop variety. This paper presents the specific local mark in this area and the results of the selection process, completed with the releasing of the 'Amara', 'Silva', 'Amar Galata', 'Amar Maxut' and 'Special' cultivars.

Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mateescu E.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest
International Agrophysics | Year: 2011

This paper deals with the trend for Penman- Monteith reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements of some crops during the first decade of the 21st century versus the 20th century. These indices were calculated for three weather stations in various regions of southern Romania. Monthly distribution of reference evapotranspiration showed that for the first half of the year, these values were higher than the means of the 20th century. In the first decade of century XXI, crop evapotranspiration specifically increased in May, June and July, while the increase was negligible in August and it decreased in September. High crop evapotranspiration values were especially met for alfalfa and sugar beet. Irrigation water requirements increased in May and June. It had practically the same values in July and August, whereas irrigation application decreased in September. There is no need to irrigate during this month except in severe droughts. © 2011 Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences.

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