Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing

Piteşti, Romania

Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing

Piteşti, Romania
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Irina A.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Monica S.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2014

In Romania, the breeding program for currant begun 60 years ago. Till now from autochthon black currant breeding program were obtained six black currant cultivars. The most cultivated Romanian black currant cultivars are Abanos and Deea. But the requirements of the growers and consumers are in continues change. Therefore it is very important the study of local varieties, domestic and foreign ones, to find sources for new varieties resistant to diseases and pathogens also with good quality of fruit, economically valuable. In the present paper we are presenting seven quality indicators to six black currant genotypes to identify new valuable resources for our actual breeding program. The study was conducted at RIFG Pitesti, Romania, during 2011-2034, in a subdivided plot design with factorial arrangement 6x3, after the following experimental scheme: A Factor - genotypes, with six graduations: a1=10-10-40, a2=10-10-38, a3=10-10-10, a4=10-10-42, a5=10-2-16, a6=10-2-3. B Factor-the study year, with 3 graduations b1=2011, b2=2012, b3=2013. For quantifying the fruit quality characteristics, some biometric fruit quality indicators were made. Over the studied period the genotype 10-2-16 recorded the highest size index value (27.53 mm) and the genotype 10-2-3 recorded the lowest value (23.56) to the same indicator. The higher fruits firmness (0.90 N) and average weight of fruits (0.86g) were recorded also to genotype 10-2-16. The data were statistically calculated by ANOVA-method, using Duncan Test. (p=0.05).

Iancu M.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Fruit Growing Research | Year: 2012

The management and fertilization systems are particularly important owing to their influence both on tree behavior and soil properties as well. To highlight this influence of soil management systems (between tree rows and along the row) as well as N fertilization on some chemical components in soil, some investigations have been initiated since 1990 in a plum orchard established in 1984. The studies were performed on tipic planosol located on a flat land from the 3rd terrace of Doamnei river. The following experimental scheme was organized: A Factor - Soil sampling depth, with the graduations: a1 = 0-10 cm; a2 = 10-20 cm; B Factor = Soil management system, with the graduations: b1 = clean cultivation management of 1 cm wide stripe, along the tree row; b2 = the same management of another stripe like in b1 by mulching resulted from the grass mowing; C Factor = N rate, with the graduations: c1 = N0; c2 = N150; c3 = N100; c4 = N150; c5 = N200. The experiment was arranged in the field following the subdivided blocks method with the systematic design of A, B factors in 4 replications. The nitrogen was annually applied as ammonium azotate. P and K fertilization was evenly done over the whole acreage every 2-3 years. In 2011, after 22 years of B, C experimental factors involvement, pH values and P, K contents were registered. On an average, for the 3 soil management systems and 5 N fertilization levels on 0-10 cm versus 10-20 cm depth, pH value was significantly lower by 2.3% and P, K contents very significantly higher by 96% and 30.6% respectively. The soil management by mulching versus the other 2 management systems lead to a significant increase of P content by 48-78% and of K content by 42-62%. An increase of N rate versus to No treatment brought about a general decrease of pH values and certainly of P and K content. The data reported in this paper can be utilized for the selection of an adequate management system and of optimum N rates which are going to be applied in the plum orchards located on soil types with close properties to the experimental soil.

Plopa C.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Preda S.,University of Craiova
Fruit Growing Research | Year: 2014

Establishing an accurate diagnosis in terms of viral for propagation of fruit tree is very important, it represents the most effective method of protection against viruses. Based on these considerations the primary objective of this study is to detect viruses with the highest incidence in plum by biological and ELISA serological methods, to a number of 85 samples taken from 17 varieties. Serologic testing on DAS-ELISA diagnosed 3 positive samples to Plum pox virus (PPV), 2 positives sample to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV) and one positive sample to Prune dwarf virus (PDV). There were not positive samples to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV). The tests conducted on woody indicator plants by grafting on protect conditions and after 3-24 months assured of diagnosis for PPV, PDV, PNRSV and ACLSV viruses. The biological indicators: 'GF 305', 'Tuleu dulce' and 'Vânăt de Italia', have shown symptoms for PNRSV for two samples. On biological indicator 'Vânăt de Italia' and 'Tuleu dulce' not appeared symptoms for 'Centenar' variety tested for PPV, although the symptoms were obvious on 'GF 305' indicator, but viral infection was confirmed by ELISA test. Symptoms that indicate the presence of PDV occurred by 'Vânat de Italia' biological indicator.

Florea A.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Fruit Growing Research | Year: 2014

The nutritional control of strawberry is very difficult, because a large number of factors influence the absorption and availability of nutrients through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Aim is to establish concrete measures for improving crop technology by applying optimum dose of fertilizers, leading to increased productivity and fruit quality of strawberry culture. The research was conducted during 2009-2011, in a two-way experience. It was located at the Institute of Research - Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti. Experimental factors were: A - cultivars: a1 - Onebor, a2 - Real, a3 - Elsanta a3, a4 - Magic, a5 - Alba, a6 - Premial; a7-Queen Elisa; B - Fertilizer with 6 graduations: b1 - unfertilized, and five graduations b2 - b6 were applied mixtures of the below fertilizers, thus: b2 - 6.4 kg/ha/week, b3 - 14.3 kg/ha/week, b4 - 21.4 kg/ha/week, b5 - 28.5 kg/ha/week and b6 - 35.8 kg/ha/week. The fertilizers applied were: Polyfeed (N19: P19: K19), potassium nitrate (N12: P0: K43: Mg2) and Magnisal (N11: P0: K0: Mg15). Mixtures were applied at 2 weeks intervals, as follows: 1 April to 15 May (flowering time), 2 applications, containing macroelements N: P: K: Mg - 14:6,3:20,7:5,7 g/100 g mixed fertilizers; May 15 - June 15 (in the picking period), 2 applications of N: P: K: Mg 10,2:6,3:13,5:2,83 g/100 g blend fertilizer and August 1 to September 15 (2 applications) with N: P: K: Mg 12,2:6,3:20,7:31,6 g/100 g mixed fertilizers. Following determinations were made: number of fruit per plant, average weight of fruit (g) by weighing a sample of 250 fruits and production in tons/hectare. Experimental treatments have led to differences in fruit production. Thus, the analysis of fertilizer doses on the chemical components of the fruits of the seven studied cultivars, we concluded that V5 and V6 treatments had a positive influence on number of fruit per plant and on yielding capacity. Treatments induced also, highest average fruit weight in variety Queen Elisa (20.61 g).

Halmagyi A.,Romanian Institute of Biological Research | Deliu C.,Romanian Institute of Biological Research | Isac V.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Two droplet procedures, droplet-vitrification (PVS2) and droplet (DMSO) were applied for cryopreservation of in vitro cultured apple (Malus domestica Borkh., cvs. Florina, Idared, Colmar and Rebra) plants. The highest post-thaw regrowth rates (70% for cv. Florina, 66% for cv. Idared, 63% for cv. Colmar and 60% for cv. Rebra) were achieved after using the droplet-vitrification (PVS2) protocol. The excised shoot tips (2-3 mm in length) were precultured in 0.5 M sucrose enriched media for 24 h. Subsequently they were transferred in PVS2 vitrification solution for 30 or 40 min (depending on cultivar) at 24 °C and then immersed in liquid nitrogen. Rewarming was performed in liquid MS medium at 24 °C. Plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips did not display any sign of morphological alteration or abnormalities in growth in comparison with control plants. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mateescu E.,National Meteorological Administration
International Agrophysics | Year: 2012

The paper deals with the trend for Penman- Monteith reference evapotranspiration and climatic water deficit during the first decade of the 21st century in Southern Romania vs the 20th century. For the first half of the year the monthly evapotranspiration values were higher for the first decade of the 21st century vs the means of the 20th century. However, the trend reverses for the second half of the year, but for the whole year the totals were higher for the first decade of the 21st century vs the totals of the 20th century. The yearly temperature means in the first decade of the XXI century showed an increase in the three locations studied, respectively, vs century XX. This warming is responsible to a great extent for the increase in evapotranspiration, and the relationship between evapotranspiration and temperature was highly significant. Water deficit decreased in Constanta and Pitesti, but there was a slight increase in water deficit in the same period in Bucharest-Baneasa. Water deficit increased in the first half of the year and decreased in the second half during the first decade of century XXI in all the three locations investigated vs century XX. © 2012 Institute of Agrophysic.

Isac V.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mladin Gh.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Lonicera caerulea is a honeysuckle native throughout the cool temperature Northern Hemisphere. It was introduced in Romania for research purposes in 1988 and the interest for this species increased because of its fruit biochemical content and economic value. We have developed in vitro propagation biotechnology for rapid shoot multiplication of two honeysuckles (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) cultivars 'Loni' and 'Cera', released in Romania in 2003. These cultivars were highlighted to be approved and extended in production for both dessert and fruit processing industries. Cultures were started by using actively growing shoots from field grown shrubs. Buds were surface sterilized with ethanol and calcium hypochlorite. The best initiation medium for both Lonicera cultivars was Quoirin & Lepoivre (QL) basal salt mixture and Linsmaier & Skoog (LS) vitamins, containing 0.1 mg/L GA3, and 1mg/L IBA. Multiplication rate varied depending on the cultivar and growth regulators concentrations. The highest multiplication rate was obtained using 1 mg/L BAP and 0.05 mg/L GA3. Excised axillary shoots were rooted in vitro in presence of IBA. Microshoots rooted differently depending on the treatment and cultivar. In case of 'Loni' cultivar 89.6% rooting was achieved by treatment with 1 mg/L IBA and 162 mg/L PG when Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal nutrient medium was used. The plantlets were subsequently transferred into different substrates for acclimatization. This research showed that two Lonicera cultivars responded differently in culture. 'Loni' cultivar was more prolific than 'Cera' in the conditions tested.

Paltineanua C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Tanasescu N.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The paper describes the lower base line (LBL) and upper base line (UBL) for apple orchards and the relationships between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the soil moisture content (SMC) in a loamy soil. The experiment was carried out at Pitesti-Maracineni, southern Romania, during two growing seasons, in an apple orchard 12 years old, with cultivar 'Idared' grafted on M9 rootstock. The lower base line was drawn as a regression equation between the apple crop and air temperature difference versus the vapor pressure deficit. The CWSI mainly ranged between 0.10 and 0.80. The relationship between CWSI and the soil moisture content is inverse and highly significant but with low R 2 (0.392). Soil variability, intermittent cloudiness and agronomic factors could be responsible for this correlation. The practical recommendation in irrigation scheduling of this orchard is that CWSI values of 0.20 to 0.30 indicate the need for application of 500 to 700 m 3 ha -1 irrigation under the specific conditions of the region.

Budan S.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Taking into account a strong local tradition for the consumption of bitter cherry jam, the national program for the breeding of this cherry type included, as a specific objective, identifying, collecting, and evaluating the most valuable biotypes of cherry with bitter fruits taste in the spontaneous and semi-cultivated flora and registering them as a crop variety. This paper presents the specific local mark in this area and the results of the selection process, completed with the releasing of the 'Amara', 'Silva', 'Amar Galata', 'Amar Maxut' and 'Special' cultivars.

Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mateescu E.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest
International Agrophysics | Year: 2011

This paper deals with the trend for Penman- Monteith reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements of some crops during the first decade of the 21st century versus the 20th century. These indices were calculated for three weather stations in various regions of southern Romania. Monthly distribution of reference evapotranspiration showed that for the first half of the year, these values were higher than the means of the 20th century. In the first decade of century XXI, crop evapotranspiration specifically increased in May, June and July, while the increase was negligible in August and it decreased in September. High crop evapotranspiration values were especially met for alfalfa and sugar beet. Irrigation water requirements increased in May and June. It had practically the same values in July and August, whereas irrigation application decreased in September. There is no need to irrigate during this month except in severe droughts. © 2011 Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences.

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