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Irina A.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Monica S.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2014

In Romania, the breeding program for currant begun 60 years ago. Till now from autochthon black currant breeding program were obtained six black currant cultivars. The most cultivated Romanian black currant cultivars are Abanos and Deea. But the requirements of the growers and consumers are in continues change. Therefore it is very important the study of local varieties, domestic and foreign ones, to find sources for new varieties resistant to diseases and pathogens also with good quality of fruit, economically valuable. In the present paper we are presenting seven quality indicators to six black currant genotypes to identify new valuable resources for our actual breeding program. The study was conducted at RIFG Pitesti, Romania, during 2011-2034, in a subdivided plot design with factorial arrangement 6x3, after the following experimental scheme: A Factor - genotypes, with six graduations: a1=10-10-40, a2=10-10-38, a3=10-10-10, a4=10-10-42, a5=10-2-16, a6=10-2-3. B Factor-the study year, with 3 graduations b1=2011, b2=2012, b3=2013. For quantifying the fruit quality characteristics, some biometric fruit quality indicators were made. Over the studied period the genotype 10-2-16 recorded the highest size index value (27.53 mm) and the genotype 10-2-3 recorded the lowest value (23.56) to the same indicator. The higher fruits firmness (0.90 N) and average weight of fruits (0.86g) were recorded also to genotype 10-2-16. The data were statistically calculated by ANOVA-method, using Duncan Test. (p=0.05).

Monica S.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Irina A.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Emil C.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Year: 2014

The major factors influencing the strawberries quality are the genotype, culture technology, climatic conditions and harvest time. In Romania consumers like strawberry fruits especially picked in May to June season, in that period having better appearance, nutritional and organoleptic qualities, superior to those that ripen in summer and autumn. In 2012-2014 period at RIFG Pitesti was organized an experiment with seven strawberry cultivars to compare the quality of fruits, some cultivars being already in the commercial culture. The results showed significant differences between cultivars regarding the following quality parameters: the color of the fruits, determined by chroma (C*) recorded values ranging between 23.52 (Magic) and 32.92 (Premial) and the hue angle (h°), values between 21.74 (Clery) and 26.95 (Magic); fruit size determined by the size index registered values between 34.28 (Coral) and 39.2 (Record), average fruit weight ranging from 13.63 g at Coral cultivar and 25.02 g at Record cultivar. At the same time fruit firmness revealed the highest values for Alba (2.98 kgf/cm2) and Clery cultivars (2.78 kgf/cm2); The Coral cultivar noted the strongest aroma and the highest soluble solids content (10.33% Brix).

Halmagyi A.,Romanian Institute of Biological Research | Deliu C.,Romanian Institute of Biological Research | Isac V.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Two droplet procedures, droplet-vitrification (PVS2) and droplet (DMSO) were applied for cryopreservation of in vitro cultured apple (Malus domestica Borkh., cvs. Florina, Idared, Colmar and Rebra) plants. The highest post-thaw regrowth rates (70% for cv. Florina, 66% for cv. Idared, 63% for cv. Colmar and 60% for cv. Rebra) were achieved after using the droplet-vitrification (PVS2) protocol. The excised shoot tips (2-3 mm in length) were precultured in 0.5 M sucrose enriched media for 24 h. Subsequently they were transferred in PVS2 vitrification solution for 30 or 40 min (depending on cultivar) at 24 °C and then immersed in liquid nitrogen. Rewarming was performed in liquid MS medium at 24 °C. Plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips did not display any sign of morphological alteration or abnormalities in growth in comparison with control plants. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mateescu E.,National Meteorological Administration
International Agrophysics | Year: 2012

The paper deals with the trend for Penman- Monteith reference evapotranspiration and climatic water deficit during the first decade of the 21st century in Southern Romania vs the 20th century. For the first half of the year the monthly evapotranspiration values were higher for the first decade of the 21st century vs the means of the 20th century. However, the trend reverses for the second half of the year, but for the whole year the totals were higher for the first decade of the 21st century vs the totals of the 20th century. The yearly temperature means in the first decade of the XXI century showed an increase in the three locations studied, respectively, vs century XX. This warming is responsible to a great extent for the increase in evapotranspiration, and the relationship between evapotranspiration and temperature was highly significant. Water deficit decreased in Constanta and Pitesti, but there was a slight increase in water deficit in the same period in Bucharest-Baneasa. Water deficit increased in the first half of the year and decreased in the second half during the first decade of century XXI in all the three locations investigated vs century XX. © 2012 Institute of Agrophysic.

Plopa C.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Preda S.,University of Craiova
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) produces variable symptoms on infected apple both in the nursery and in orchard. Severe strains of the virus can induce severe necrosis and reduce the production of fruit buds by 20-40%. Obtaining ApMV-free plants in apple was tested by using meristem culture. The research was conducted on three virus infected: 'Golden Delicious', 'Golden Spur' and 'Lord Lambourne'. Identification of the virus was done by DAS-ELISA serological test and bioassay Cucumis sativus plant, which produced chlorotic lesions on cotyledons. Infected biological material was inoculated on QL culture media with the growth regulators 0.01 mg/L IBA and 0.3 mg/L GA3. Explants had two dimensions: 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm. Multiplication phase was achieved on MS culture medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L ANA. Rooting was conducted on MS medium with two growth regulators 2 mg/L IBA and 0,5 mg/L GA3. After rooting of the plants from root meristems of 0.3 mm, diagnosed viral testing was positive for 58% of 'Golden Delicious' variety, 52% for the variety 'Lord Lambourne' and 50% for the variety 'Golden Spur'. Plants derived from meristems of 1 mm in size were diagnosed infected at a rate of 83% in 'Golden Delicious' variety, 80% in 'Lord Lambourne' and 77% for the 'Golden Spur' variety.

Isac V.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mladin Gh.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Lonicera caerulea is a honeysuckle native throughout the cool temperature Northern Hemisphere. It was introduced in Romania for research purposes in 1988 and the interest for this species increased because of its fruit biochemical content and economic value. We have developed in vitro propagation biotechnology for rapid shoot multiplication of two honeysuckles (Lonicera caerulea L. var. kamtschatica Sevast.) cultivars 'Loni' and 'Cera', released in Romania in 2003. These cultivars were highlighted to be approved and extended in production for both dessert and fruit processing industries. Cultures were started by using actively growing shoots from field grown shrubs. Buds were surface sterilized with ethanol and calcium hypochlorite. The best initiation medium for both Lonicera cultivars was Quoirin & Lepoivre (QL) basal salt mixture and Linsmaier & Skoog (LS) vitamins, containing 0.1 mg/L GA3, and 1mg/L IBA. Multiplication rate varied depending on the cultivar and growth regulators concentrations. The highest multiplication rate was obtained using 1 mg/L BAP and 0.05 mg/L GA3. Excised axillary shoots were rooted in vitro in presence of IBA. Microshoots rooted differently depending on the treatment and cultivar. In case of 'Loni' cultivar 89.6% rooting was achieved by treatment with 1 mg/L IBA and 162 mg/L PG when Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal nutrient medium was used. The plantlets were subsequently transferred into different substrates for acclimatization. This research showed that two Lonicera cultivars responded differently in culture. 'Loni' cultivar was more prolific than 'Cera' in the conditions tested.

Paltineanua C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Tanasescu N.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The paper describes the lower base line (LBL) and upper base line (UBL) for apple orchards and the relationships between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the soil moisture content (SMC) in a loamy soil. The experiment was carried out at Pitesti-Maracineni, southern Romania, during two growing seasons, in an apple orchard 12 years old, with cultivar 'Idared' grafted on M9 rootstock. The lower base line was drawn as a regression equation between the apple crop and air temperature difference versus the vapor pressure deficit. The CWSI mainly ranged between 0.10 and 0.80. The relationship between CWSI and the soil moisture content is inverse and highly significant but with low R 2 (0.392). Soil variability, intermittent cloudiness and agronomic factors could be responsible for this correlation. The practical recommendation in irrigation scheduling of this orchard is that CWSI values of 0.20 to 0.30 indicate the need for application of 500 to 700 m 3 ha -1 irrigation under the specific conditions of the region.

Zagrai I.,Fruit Research and Development Station | Zagrai L.,Fruit Research and Development Station | Butac M.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The use of resistant cultivars is considered to be the most efficient solution to control Plum pox virus (PPV). The identification of new potential sources of PPV resistance in plum germplasm remains important for the future development of new cultivars due to the paucity of naturally occurring resistance reported so far. Two plum selections named 'Local de Dragasani' and 'Dunarea albastra' respectively, grown within the experimental plum orchard with high inoculum pressure with PPV-D and PPV-Rec strains, have remained PPV free during a period of 17 years. When artificially inoculated in greenhouse conditions with PPV-D or PPV-Rec, a typical hypersensitivity response was observed on 'Local de Dragasani'. Because the effectiveness of hypersensitivity against PPV is still under controversy, additional studies are requested. The behavior of 'Dunarea albastra' under high natural inoculum pressure with PPV also showed a particular interest. Is this selection a potential candidate for PPV resistance? Artificial inoculation needs to be performed to obtain pertinent conclusions. Studies on resistance to PPV of the two plum selections are going to be expanded.

Budan S.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Taking into account a strong local tradition for the consumption of bitter cherry jam, the national program for the breeding of this cherry type included, as a specific objective, identifying, collecting, and evaluating the most valuable biotypes of cherry with bitter fruits taste in the spontaneous and semi-cultivated flora and registering them as a crop variety. This paper presents the specific local mark in this area and the results of the selection process, completed with the releasing of the 'Amara', 'Silva', 'Amar Galata', 'Amar Maxut' and 'Special' cultivars.

Paltineanu C.,Research Station for Fruit Growing | Chitu E.,Romanian Research Institute for Fruit Growing | Mateescu E.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest
International Agrophysics | Year: 2011

This paper deals with the trend for Penman- Monteith reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements of some crops during the first decade of the 21st century versus the 20th century. These indices were calculated for three weather stations in various regions of southern Romania. Monthly distribution of reference evapotranspiration showed that for the first half of the year, these values were higher than the means of the 20th century. In the first decade of century XXI, crop evapotranspiration specifically increased in May, June and July, while the increase was negligible in August and it decreased in September. High crop evapotranspiration values were especially met for alfalfa and sugar beet. Irrigation water requirements increased in May and June. It had practically the same values in July and August, whereas irrigation application decreased in September. There is no need to irrigate during this month except in severe droughts. © 2011 Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences.

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