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Ahsan M.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital | Mallick A.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Objectives: Majority of teaching hours allotted by the Medical Council of India in pharmacology are utilized in the form of didactic lecture. Although these lectures are an excellent tool to deliver the information to a large group of students, it usually ends up as a one-sided teaching session with most students being the passive listeners. To make these lectures interesting and effective, we introduced the students to prelecture assignment (PLA) in the form of clinical case before the delivery of the lecture. Methods: This prospective educational trial was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology with undergraduate medical students in their 2nd year of their professional course. They were divided into two groups of 75 each. Group A was provided the PLA before the lecture. Group B students directly attended the lecture, sans the PLA. Multiple-choice questions-based test was conducted 2 days after the lecture. Students who failed to complete the assignment and were absent from the lecture and test were excluded from the study. Feedback from the students was obtained after the lecture. The scores in the test and responses were compiled and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results were expressed in percentages and as mean ± standard deviation as applicable. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Fifty-six students from Group A and 42 from Group B appeared for the test. The students who were given PLA scored better. They felt more confident in answering and understood the topic better than the students of other group. Conclusion: PLA is a useful teaching-learning tool. The pharmacology lectures are interactive, interesting, and easy to understand with this tool. Key message: Pre lecture assignment (PLA) can help in making pharmacology lectures interactive, thought provoking, interesting and easy to understand. PLAs give learners an opportunity to identify the misconceptions of the students and thus build the lecture around those key points instead of making the lecture a one-way traffic of information. © 2016 Indian Journal of Pharmacology Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

Shaifali I.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital | Gupta U.,Eras Lucknow Medical College | Mahmood S.E.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital | Ahmed J.,Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical science
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

Background: Urinary tract Infection (UTI) is among the most common infections described in outpatient setting and hospital patients. In almost all cases empirical antimicrobial treatment initiates before the laboratory results of urine culture are available; thus antibiotic resistance may increase in uropathogens due to frequent use of antibiotics. Aims: The study was designed to ind the prevalence of UTI in females with urinary tract symptoms, to determine the causative organism (s) of UTI, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture (antibiogram). Materials and Methods: The prospective, observational study involved 139 females, aged 15 years and above clinically suspected for UTI attending outpatient Departments of Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the study subjects. A chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used to analyze data. Results: The overall prevalence of UTI was found to be 45.32% (63/139). Escherichia coli (33.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.9%) were the most common organisms isolated. The most effective antibiotic for both was Nitrofurantoin. Conclusions: Regular monitoring is required to establish reliable information about susceptibility pattern of urinary pathogens for optimal empirical therapy of patients with UTI.

Pokhrel A.K.,University of California at Berkeley | Bates M.N.,University of California at Berkeley | Verma S.C.,Regional Tuberculosis Center | Verma S.C.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2010

Background: In Nepal, tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem. Worldwide, six previous epidemiologic studies have investigated whether indoor cooking with biomass fuel such as wood or agricultural wastes is associated with TB with inconsistent results. Objectives: Using detailed information on potential confounders, we investigated the associations between TB and the use of biomass and kerosene fuels. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Pokhara, Nepal. Cases (n = 125) were women, 20-65 years old, with a confirmed diagnosis of TB. Age-matched controls (n = 250) were female patients without TB. Detailed exposure histories were collected with a standardized questionnaire. Results: Compared with using a clean-burning fuel stove (liquefied petroleum gas, biogas), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for using a biomass-fuel stove was 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.48-3.05], whereas use of a kerosene-fuel stove had an OR of 3.36 (95% CI, 1.01-11.22). The OR for use of biomass fuel for heating was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.44-8.27) and for use of kerosene lamps for lighting was 9.43 (95% CI, 1.45-61.32). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that the use of indoor biomass fuel, particularly as a source of heating, is associated with TB in women. It also provides the first evidence that using kerosene stoves and wick lamps is associated with TB. These associations require confirmation in other studies. If using kerosene lamps is a risk factor for TB, it would provide strong justification for promoting clean lighting sources, such as solar lamps.

Ahmed Q.R.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital
Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ | Year: 2010

The purpose of the present study was to investigate how far the short term practice of yoga (30 and 60 days) for an hour daily can improve the respiratory function. Male subjects (n=50, age 30-50 years) were randomly selected. Respiratory parameters (FVC, FEV1, PEFR, FEF(25-75%) and MVV) were determined by using a multifunctional computerized spirometer. Yoga (posture and pranayamas) practice for a month produced no significant improvement in pulmonary parameters. Nevertheless, when the subjects continued it for next 30 days, i.e., after 60 days significant changes were noted in FVC (p<0.001), FEV, (p<0.01) and PEFR (p<0.05). The result also revealed that amongst them 30 days yoga training resulted in a significant increase in FVC in elder group of people (age 41-50 yrs) where as in younger group (age 30-40 yrs) the changes were not so prominent. Result indicated that short term (30 days) yoga practice quickly improves respiratory functions in relatively elder people (age 41-50 yrs), when many of them in our tropical country suffer from primary level of respiratory problem. Regular practice of Yoga (posture and pranayamas) can prevent it by increasing the efficacy of respiratory muscles.

Kapoor P.,Indraprastha Apollo Hospital | Kapoor A.K.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital
Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine | Year: 2013

Coenzyme Q10 is a fat soluble vitamin-like substance produced by the human body. It is necessary for proper functioning of many organs and for basic functioning of cells. It is found throughout the body. Coenzyme Q10 is used both as a food supplement and as an important antioxidant. It is a component of the electron transport chain and plays a key role in producing energy in mitochondria in the form of ATP that functions like a rechargeable battery in the transfer of energy. Coenzyme Q10 levels are reported to decrease with age and to be low in cardiac conditions, Parkinson's disease, cancer, diabetes, muscular dystrophies, HIV/AIDs, etc. Some drugs also lower Coenzyme Q10 levels. It is not only used as an important nutrional supplement by millions of people all over world but is also used in a number of clinical conditions namely CHF, diabetes, gum disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, etc. Coenzyme Q10 is fairly safe and well tolerated.

Verma D.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital | Kishore S.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital | Siddique M.E.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Background: Malaria and Typhoid are two major infectious diseases, still prevalent in most of the tropical countries including India. Millions of individuals residing in these endemic cases contact these diseases either concurrently or as acute infection superimposed on a chronic one. Aim: Diagnosis and comparative evaluation of various tests for diagnosis of Typhoid- Malaria co-infection in patients suffering from febrile illness. Material and Methods: Around 800 patients of both Out Patient Department (OPD) and In Patient Departmenyt (IPD) were referred to microbiology lab for Widal test/ Typhi dot IgG/IgM and Malaria card test between July 2012- September 2012. Patients found to be suffering from co-infection were further confirmed for typhoid by blood culture. Those patients who were found sterile on blood culture were further confirmed by stool culture. Patients positive by Malaria card test (either antibody or antigen or both) were confirmed by peripheral blood smear examination for malaria parasite by both thick and thin smear examination. Result: 68 (8.5%) patients were found to be suffering from co- infection by the above tests. Blood culture revealed 15 (22%) bacterial pathogens in the widal positive patients out of which 6(8.8%) were Salmonella Typhi and 3 (4.41%) were Salmonella Paratyphi A. Stool culture revealed 8 (11.7%) S.Typhi and 5 (7.35%) S.Paratyphi A cases. Out of 68 patients positive by Malaria card test, only 36 (52.94%) showed Malaria parasite in peripheral blood smear also. Thus the no. of confirmed cases of co-infection was found to be only 1.6%. Conclusion: The interpretation of Widal test and Malaria card test, when diagnosing concurrent malaria and typhoid fever, must therefore be done with a lot of caution. Negative or positive Widal agglutination test is neither definitive nor completely informative. Similarly erroneous interpretation of Malaria card test (especially Antibody detection card test) result may lead to prolonged treatment and economic burden on patient.

Singh A.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital
Nepalese journal of ophthalmology : a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society : NEPJOPH | Year: 2012

Although there has been a considerable reduction in the infective causes of ocular morbidity, the global burden of blindness has not significantly altered for over a decade. To find the extent of ocular morbidity in different subgroups of the rural population and to study the factors associated with ocular morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Jasra and Saidabad blocks of Allahabad District. A total of eight villages were selected by multistage random sampling technique. The data were analyzed with SPSS Software. Among 9,736 people surveyed, 931 cases of eye diseases were identified. Ocular morbidity was highest (40.92 %) among those aged above 60 years. A higher morbidity was also observed among females (53.60 %), illiterates (69.50 %) and those belonging to low socioeconomic strata (42.86 %). The main causes of ocular morbidity in the study population were cataract (41.89 %), uncorrected refractive errors (21.59 %), xerophthalmia (10.20 %) and glaucoma ( 4.83 %). Programs for cataract surgery, detection and treatment of glaucoma, correction of refractive errors and vitamin A prophylaxis for xerophthalmia need to be targeted to further reduce the burden of ocular morbidity. © NEPjOPH.

Kishore S.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital | Verma D.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital | Siddique M.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as one of the commonest cause of hospital acquired infections worldwide. Vancomycin is the antibiotic of choice for treatment of MRSA, but due to slow increase in vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (vancomycin creep),Vancomycin has become a suboptimal therapeutic option in critically ill patients. Linezolid has emerged as an alternative drug in the treatment of such cases. Aim: To compare in vitro activities of linezolid and vancomycin against Staphylococcus aureus, in order to help in formulating a better treatment. Method: 200 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from different clinical specimens between April 2010 to March 2011. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method and MICs of vancomycin and linezolid were determined for all 200 strains by agar dilution method by following CLSI guidelines. Results: Among 200 strains, MIC for linezolid was 4 μg/ml for 3 strains, MIC was 2 μg/ml for 71 strains, and MIC was 1 μg/ml for 126 strains, while for the same 200 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, MIC of vancomycin was 4 μg/ml for 8 strains, it was 2 μg/ml for 103 strains and it was 1 μg/ml for 89 strains. Conclusion: Linezolid and vancomycin had similar in-vitro efficacies for Staphylococcus aureus in disc diffusion method, but the number of strains with higher ranges of MICs of vancomycin (1-4 μg/ml) were more as compared to those which had higher ranges of MICs for linezolid. So, we suggest that linezolid can be a good alternative for the treatment of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus as compared to vancomycin.

Pandey M.K.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital | Mittra P.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital | Maheshwari P.K.,P.A. College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012

Context: Free radicals have been implicated in the development of acute and chronic diseases of the brain e.g. Epilepsy, Cerebrovascular diseases, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, etc. The present study was designed to assess the oxidative stress in epilepsy, since very few of such studies have been designed in human beings. Aims: To study the level of the lipid peroxidation products i.e. malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress in epilepsy patients. Settings and Design: This case control study had 170 samples which comprised Group I(n-90) patients of epilepsy as the cases, which were compared with Group II (n-80) which were age and sex matched controls. Methods and Materials: The lipid peroxidation product i.e. MDA formation was estimated by assessing the levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by using spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software and the results were described by using the unpaired T test and p values. Results: In the present study, the mean MDA value in Group I (2.38 ±0.31) was significantly raised (p<0.01) than in Group II (2.15±0.36), thus suggesting that the MDA values were raised in epilepsy. The mean MDA level after 1 year of therapy was 2.25±0.25, with a p value of <0.05, thus suggesting a reduction in the oxidative stress with therapy. Conclusions: The level of the lipid peroxidation is significantly higher in epilepsy as compared to the control and oxidative stress increases which were found with the duration of the epilepsy. The oxidative stress had no significant difference in the males and females. The oxidative stress was found to reduce on adequate antiepileptic therapy.

Chaudhary V.,Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital
Indian journal of public health | Year: 2010

The deadly disease swine flu is, without a speck of doubt, causing a massive havoc among the common people of India and has created fear across the various strata of the society. The objective was to find out the awareness, perception, and myths of school going children of class 9 th to 12 th toward swine flu. The present cross-sectional study was carried out in two randomly selected (using random number table) senior secondary schools of Bareilly among 400 students of class 9 th to 12 th . A total of 200 students were selected from each school. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. Almost all the students (97.75%) have heard about of swine flu and are aware of it as a disease entity. Fever was found to be the main symptom while coughing and sneezing were main way of spread of swine flu known to them. About 97% of the students mention use of mask as most effective way to prevent them from swine flu. Knowledge of availability of medicine was present in less than half of the students. TV was found to be the main source from which they get knowledge (79%), and they are trying to get knowledge (53.2%) of swine flu. Among them, 74% students were taking precaution against swine flu.

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