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Ahmed S.S.,Rohde and Schwarz GmbH and Co. KG
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Personnel screening is demanded nowadays for securing air traffic as well as critical infrastructures. The millimeterwaves are able to penetrate clothes and detect concealed objects, making them an attractive choice for security screening. Imaging methods based on multistatic architecture can ensure high quality imagery in terms of resolution and dynamic range. Following the advances in semiconductor technology, fully electronic solutions delivering real-time imaging are becoming feasible. Furthermore, the continuously increasing capabilities of digital signal processing units allow for the utilization of digital-beamforming techniques for image reconstruction, thus offering new opportunities for imaging systems to use sophisticated operation modes. Based on these modern technologies, an advanced realization addressing personnel screening in E-band with planar multistatic sparse array design is demonstrated.© 2013 SPIE.


Medler J.,Rohde and Schwarz GmbH and Co. KG
IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility | Year: 2014

The consideration of measurement instrumentation uncertainty (MIU) is common practice when determining compliance or non-compliance with a disturbance limit. But MIU is just a subpart of the standard compliance uncertainty (SCU) which also addresses uncertainties related to the EUT set-up, EUT operation and measurement procedure. One major influence quantity of SCU is the termination of cables leaving the test volume of the radiated disturbance measurement set-up. With the publication of Amendment A2 to 3rd Edition of CISPR 16-2-3 in 2014 new requirements for minimizing this effect become effective. It requires the termination of cables leaving the test volume using a ferrite type common mode absorption device (CMAD). The significant technical changes and measurement results with and without using CMAD are presented. © 2014 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineer.


Medler J.,Rohde and Schwarz GmbH and Co. KG
IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility | Year: 2014

FFT-based measuring instruments can be used for EMI compliance measurements in accordance with Amendment 1 to 3rd Edition of CISPR 16-1-1 if this standard is referenced in the product standard. The use is motivated by reducing the scan time by several orders of magnitude. A part of this time saving can be used for applying longer measurement times in order to reliably detect narrowband intermittent signals or isolated pulses. For precise and reproducible measurements the use of preselection filters is highly recommended. © 2014 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineer.


Hrobak M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Sterns M.,Rohde and Schwarz GmbH and Co. KG | Schramm M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Stein W.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Schmidt L.-P.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques | Year: 2013

Frequency extender modules of vector network analyzers and signal generators, as well as front-end modules of semiconductor automatic test systems, make use of broadband resistive diode frequency multipliers. This paper presents the design and fabrication of innovative planar varistor frequency multipliers. Three frequency triplers (#1, #2, #3) and two frequency doublers (#4, #5), operating in the 60-110 GHz and 50-110 GHz frequency ranges, respectively, are designed. The hybrid architecture utilizes commercial gallium arsenide Schottky diodes from United Monolithic Semiconductors on thin-film processed high-permittivity alumina substrate. Synthesis is based on a co-simulation procedure between 3-D electromagnetic field and nonlinear harmonic balance circuit simulations. Scalar and spectral measurement data over the focused output frequency ranges are presented. Conversion loss values around 18 dB from 60 to 95 GHz and below 22 dB from 60 to 110 GHz are achieved with frequency tripler #1. Frequency doubler #5 achieves conversion loss values below 15 dB from 50 to 89 GHz and below 22 dB from 50 to 110 GHz. A comprehensive comparison of the presented work with reported frequency multipliers is included. © 2013 IEEE.


Dengler R.,Rohde and Schwarz GmbH and Co. KG
Advanced Electromagnetics | Year: 2016

It is shown that the self inductance of a wire loop can be written as a curve integral akin to the Neumann formula for the mutual inductance of two wire loops. The only difference is that contributions where the two integration variables get too close to each other must be excluded from the curve integral and evaluated in detail. The contributions of these excluded segments depend on the distribution of the current in the cross section of the wire. They add to a simple constant proportional to the wire length. The error of the new expression is of first order in the wire radius if there are sharp corners and of second order in the wire radius for smooth wire loops. © 2012-2015 by Advanced Electromagnetics. All rights reserved.

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