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Xenia, OH, United States

Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute | Vinerean H.V.,Florida International University | Laramore M.A.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Research

The encapsulation of porcine islets is an attractive methodology for the treatment of Type I diabetes. In the current study, the use of pravastatin as a mild anti-inflammatory agent was investigated in pancreatectomized diabetic canines transplanted with porcine islets encapsulated in agarose-agarose macrobeads and given 80 mg/day of pravastatin (n = 3) while control animals did not receive pravastatin (n = 3). Control animals reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 18, 19, and 32. Pravastatin-treated animals reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 22, 27, and 50. Two animals from each group received a second macrobead implant: control animals remained insulin-free for 15 and 21 days (AUC = 3003 and 5078 mg/dL/24 hr days 1 to 15) and reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 62 and 131. Pravastatin treated animals remained insulin-free for 21 and 34 days (AUC = 1559 and 1903 mg/dL/24 hr days 1 to 15) and reached preimplant insulin requirements on days 38 and 192. Total incidence (83.3% versus 64.3%) and total severity (22.7 versus 18.3) of inflammation on tissue surfaces were higher in the control group at necropsy. These findings support pravastatin therapy in conjunction with the transplantation of encapsulated xenogeneic islets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. © 2014 Lawrence S. Gazda et al. Source

Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute | Vinerean H.V.,Florida International University | Laramore M.A.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Research

We have previously described the use of a double coated agarose-agarose porcine islet macrobead for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. In the current study, the long-term viral safety of macrobead implantation into pancreatectomized diabetic dogs treated with pravastatin (n = 3) was assessed while 2 dogs served as nonimplanted controls. A more gradual return to preimplant insulin requirements occurred after a 2nd implant procedure (days 148, 189, and >652) when compared to a first macrobead implantation (days 9, 21, and 21) in all macrobead implanted animals. In all three implanted dogs, porcine C-peptide was detected in the blood for at least 10 days following the first implant and for at least 26 days following the second implant. C-peptide was also present in the peritoneal fluid of all three implanted dogs at 6 months after 2nd implant and in 2 of 3 dogs at necropsy. Prescreening results of islet macrobeads and culture media prior to transplantation were negative for 13 viruses. No evidence of PERV or other viral transmission was found throughout the study. This study demonstrates that the long-term (2.4 years) implantation of agarose-agarose encapsulated porcine islets is a safe procedure in a large animal model of type I diabetes mellitus. © 2014 Lawrence S. Gazda et al. Source

Vinerean H.V.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute | Hall R.D.,Bob Evans Farms Inc. | And 2 more authors.

Streptozotocin (STZ), a nitrosourea with DNA alkylating properties, has been widely used to induce hyperglycemia by specifically destroying the insulin-producing β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in experimental models of Type I diabetes. STZ's known carcinogenic properties, however, raise concerns about its suitability for long-term studies. We conducted a formal study of STZ's carcinogenic effects in long-term surviving diabetic Wistar-Furth rats. To determine if insulin therapy or islet transplantation exacerbated tumorigenesis, rats were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: normal animals with no treatment (Group 1, n = 12); normal animals that underwent peritoneal implantation of porcine islets encapsulated in a double layer of agarose to form islet macrobeads (Normal + Islets; Group 2, n = 12); STZ treatment followed by daily exogenous insulin (STZ + insulin; Group 3, n = 18) and STZ treatment followed by the intraperitoneal implantation of porcine islet macrobeads (STZ + Islets; Group 4, n = 14). At 215 days post-STZ induction, no renal proliferative lesions were observed in animals that did not receive STZ (Groups 1 and 2) whereas adenoma incidences of 57% for Group 3 and 34% for Group 4 were observed. By terminal necropsy at day 351, the incidence and severity of renal proliferative lesions increased with tubular carcinoma observed in 67% of Group 3 and 60% of Group 4 animals. We conclude that the STZ-induced diabetic rat model is not suitable for long-term studies because of progressive renal tumorigenesis. Our experiments also demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of porcine islet macrobeads for the treatment of diabetes. ©2011 Landes Bioscience. Source

Smith B.H.,Cornell University | Gazda L.S.,Cornell University | Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | Conn B.L.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | And 20 more authors.
Cancer Research

Cancer cells and their associated tumors have long been considered to exhibit unregulated proliferation or growth. However, a substantial body of evidence indicates that tumor growth is subject to both positive and negative regulatory controls. Here, we describe a novel property of tumor growth regulation that is neither species nor tumor-type specific. This property, functionally a type of feedback control, is triggered by the encapsulation of neoplastic cells in a growth-restricting hydrogel composed of an agarose matrix with a second coating of agarose to form 6- to 8-mm diameter macrobeads. In a mouse cell model of renal adenocarcinoma (RENCA cells), this process resulted in selection for a stem cell-like subpopulation which together with at least one other cell subpopulation drove colony formation in the macrobeads. Cells in these colonies produced diffusible substances that markedly inhibited in vitro and in vivo proliferation of epithelial-derived tumor cells outside the macrobeads. RENCA cells in monolayer culture that were exposed to RENCA macrobead-conditioned media exhibited cell-cycle accumulation in S phase due to activation of a G2/M checkpoint. At least 10 proteins with known tumor suppression functions were identified by analysis of RENCA macrobead-conditioned media, the properties of which offer opportunities to further dissect the molecular basis for tumor growth control. More generally, macrobead culture may permit the isolation of cancer stem cells and other cells of the stem cell niche, perhaps providing strategies to define more effective biologically based clinical approaches to treat neoplastic disease. ©2011 AACR. Source

Smith B.H.,Rogosin Institute | Smith B.H.,Cornell College | Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute | Gazda L.S.,Rogosin Institute Xenia Division | And 22 more authors.
Cancer Research

The culture of tumor cell lines in three-dimensional scaffolds is considered to more closely replicate the in vivo tumor microenvironment than the standard method of two-dimensional cell culture. We hypothesized that our method of encapsulating and maintaining viable and functional pancreatic islets in agarose-agarose macrobeads (diameter 6-8 mm) might provide a novel method for the culture of tumor cell lines. In this report we describe and characterize tumor colonies that form within macrobeads seeded with mouse renal adenocarcinoma cells. Approximately 1% of seeded tumor cells survive in the macrobead and over several months form discrete elliptical colonies appearing as tumor cell niches with increasing metabolic activity in parallel to colony size. The tumor colonies demonstrate ongoing cell turnover as shown by BrdU incorporation and activated caspase-3 and TUNEL staining. Genes upregulated in the tumor colonies of the macrobead are likely adaptations to this novel environment, as well as an amplification of G1/S cell-cycle checkpoints. The data presented, including SCA-1 and Oct4 positivity and the upregulation of stem cell-like genes such as those associated with the Wnt pathway, support the notion that the macrobead selects for a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell or cancer progenitor properties. ©2011 AACR. Source

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