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State College, OK, United States

This article examines the influence of transnational mining companies' (TNMCs) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives in diamond and rutile dredge-mining areas in post-war Sierra Leone. The CSR framework applied encompasses the social license to operate, community engagement and accountability, and a critical lens of power dynamics. Key informant interviews and secondary sources provided data for the study. Findings from the research reveal that with the exception of the establishment of Kimbadu, the resettled town, implementation of CSR initiatives facilitated minimal, and at times, unsustainable, community development. It is argued that such 'development' outcomes are primarily due to asymmetrical power relations between TNMCs (i.e. Octea Mining and Sierra Rutile Limited) and the mining communities in which these companies engage in pre-defined development projects that are, in many instances, at variance with community needs. Moreover, the social structure at the local level impedes community development. The study recommends active engagement of disparate groups within the community in decision making at all stages of mining-driven community development rather than the extant social structure that gives exclusive powers to traditional leaders. It also calls for the establishment of an independent regulatory team to ensure enforcement of legal responsibilities in mining areas. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wilson S.A.,Rogers State University
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

Utilizing actor-oriented political ecology and social movements approaches, this article examines the dynamics surrounding company-community conflicts over diamonds in Sierra Leone, using Kono District as a case study. Surveys of 240 households in four diamondiferous chiefdoms, semiformal interviews, focus groups, and secondary data sources provided data for this article. Findings of this study show that post conflict mining reforms and actions of mining companies, the state and traditional leaders favor industrial mining expansion over artisanal mining. Such actions have reinforced unequal power relations over access to land and diamond mining rights to the disadvantage of mining communities and bred company-community conflicts in Kono District. The article argues that strategies that even out power differentials so that local communities benefit more from regulation relative to corporations and other powerful actors can improve the success of mining reforms and reduce the risk of community-company conflicts jeopardizing peace and security. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Wilson S.A.,Rogers State University | Wilson C.O.,University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire
Geocarto International | Year: 2013

Capturing the scope and trajectory of changes in land use and land cover (LULC) is critical to urban and regional planning, natural resource sustainability and the overall information needs of policy makers. Studies on LULC change are generally conducted within peaceful environments and seldom incorporate areas that are politically volatile. Consequently, the role of civil conflict on LULC change remains elusive. Using a dense time stack of Landsat Thematic Mapper images and a hybrid classification approach, this study analysed LULC changes in Kono District between 1986-1991, 1991-2002 and 2002-2007 with the overarching goal of elucidating deviations from typical changes in LULC caused by Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002). Informed by social survey and secondary data, this study engaged the drivers that facilitated LULC changes during war and non-war periods in a series of spatial regression models in exploring the interface between civil conflict and LULC change. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Bowen C.J.,Rogers State University | Kard B.,Oklahoma State University
Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society | Year: 2012

abstract An experimental insect growth regulator (IGR) termite bait system was placed with the objective of eliminating a persistent aerial termite colony active in the top three floors of a six-story, 100-unit apartment building. Following delineation of their foraging territory, bait matrix containing the active ingredient lufenuron was placed in contact with actively foraging termites within five infested apartments. Termite feeding activity was evaluated monthly. The infestation emanated from one colony of Reticulitermes flavipes. Bait was replaced as needed until all foraging activity ceased and no subsequent swarming occurred. No recurrence of swarming or foraging activity has been observed for seven years following cessation of termite activity within bait stations. © 2012 Kansas Entomological Society. Source

Taylor Q.,Rogers State University
Independent Review | Year: 2010

Quentin Taylor discusses the ambiguity surrounding Thomas Hobbes' reputation as an economic thinker in the annals of history. Hobbes was an absolutist who favored monarchy, but his absolutism had a liberal base and supplied the materials for the philosophy of individual rights and limited government. Hobbes received a modest entry in the first edition of Paigrave's Dictionary of Political Economy. Neither the Cambridge Companion to Hobbes nor the Cambridge Companion to Hobbes's Leviathan nor the annually published Hobbes Studies contains a single article on Hobbes's economic thought. Quentin says that Hobbes attributed confusion in politics and philosophy to the imprecise use of language, his status as an economic thinker remains confused for a similar reason. Hobbes was not an economist or a political economist but rather he was a political economist in the most literal sense of the term because he explored the interrelations of government and economics. Source

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