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Bristol, RI, United States

Roger Williams University, commonly abbreviated as RWU, is a private, coeducational American liberal arts university located on 140 acres in Bristol, Rhode Island, on Mt. Hope Bay. Founded in 1956, it was named for theologian and Rhode Island cofounder Roger Williams. The university has no religious affiliation. Wikipedia.

The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), is both an important component of our estuaries and an important farmed food animal along the east and south coasts of the United States. Its populations have been significantly diminished in the wild due to decades of overfishing beginning in the 1890s. Unfortunately, in 1950, a new disease in eastern oysters caused by the protistan agent, Perkinsus marinus, was identified. The disease, resulting from infection with this protozoan, leads to high mortality of both wild and cultured eastern oysters. Current restoration efforts are hampered by the disease, as is the aquaculture of this economically important food. The parasite infects hemocytes and causes hemolytic anemia and general degeneration of the tissues, leading to death. Ongoing research efforts are attempting to develop oysters resistant to the disease. Transport regulations exist in may states. Infection with P. marinus is listed as a reportable disease by the World Health Organization. © The Author(s) 2013.

Li Y.,Roger Williams University
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management | Year: 2011

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine a Chinese small enterprise's failed attempt to adopt enterprise resource planning (ERP) and to identify the critical success factors for these type of projects. Design/methodology/approach - Information was collected through multiple site visits and semi-structured interviews with key staff of the ERP project, as well as examination of relevant company documentations. Findings - The study identified nine critical success factors and discussed how these factors affected ERP adoption in a small farming feed manufacturing company. Originality/value - Considering very few ERP project failures are recorded in the literature and the majority of existing ERP research in China was in the context of large state-owned or foreign-invested companies, this paper represents an early effort to explore the reasons why ERP adoption failed in the case study company. It provides valuable lessons to Chinese small enterprises on some of the common pitfalls they may encounter when pursuing ERP. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Mann M.E.,Pennsylvania State University | Fuentes J.D.,Pennsylvania State University | Rutherford S.,Roger Williams University
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2012

The largest eruption of a tropical volcano during the past millennium occurred in AD 1258-1259. Its estimated radiative forcing was several times larger than the 1991 Pinatubo eruption 1. Radiative forcing of that magnitude is expected to result in a climate cooling of about 2 °C (refs 2-5). This effect, however, is largely absent from tree-ring reconstructions of temperature 6-8, and is muted in reconstructions that employ a mix of tree-rings and other proxy data 9,10. This discrepancy has called into question the climate impact of the eruption 2,5,11. Here we use a tree-growth model driven by simulated temperature variations to show that the discrepancy between expected and reconstructed temperatures is probably an artefact caused by a reduced sensitivity to cooling in trees that grow near the treeline. This effect is compounded by the secondary effects of chronological errors due to missing growth rings and volcanically induced alterations of diffuse light. We support this conclusion with an assessment of synthetic proxy records created using the simulated temperature variations. Our findings suggest that the evidence from tree rings is consistent with a substantial climate impact 2-5 of volcanic eruptions in past centuries that is greater than that estimated by tree-ring-based temperature reconstructions. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY | Award Amount: 376.62K | Year: 2013

Viral-induced mortality of marine microorganisms alters the quantity and quality of pools of dissolved organic matter in the oceans, shuttling organic matter back into the microbial loop and away from the larger marine food web. A major hindrance to understanding the role of viruses in biogeochemical cycling is that we know surprisingly little about which viruses infect which bacteria in the marine environment. In this project, a network-based framework will be used to investigate marine phage-bacteria interactions in complex, multispecies communities. The research focuses on cyanophages, viruses that infect Synechococcus, an ecologically important cyanobacterium in the oceans. There are three parts of the project. The first part will identify genetic signatures of cyanophage-Synechococcus interactions by using laboratory evolution experiments and genomic sequencing. The second part will examine the temporal and spatial diversity of these candidate interaction genes in natural cyanophage populations, by comparing the full genome sequences of hundreds of isolates previously collected over many years. The third part will adapt the new method of viral-tagging to natural host populations to characterize cyanophage-Synechococcus interaction networks in the environment.
Intellectual Merit: The role of viruses in global marine biogeochemical cycles depends on viral-induced mortality rates, which have been estimated to vary widely. The pattern and dynamics of who infects whom are central to our understanding of these rates as well as the role viruses play in marine nutrient cycling. This project will also contribute generally to our knowledge about viral diversity. The vast majority of marine viral sequences are not similar to any known diversity, and it is reasonable to conclude that many of these genes have to do with host recognition and infection. Finally, this project will develop a method of characterizing phage-bacteria interactions in natural, diverse microbial communities, thereby opening avenues for similar studies of viruses in other environments.
Broader Impacts: The project will provide training for 15 undergraduate students (including students from the California Alliance for Minority Participation in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics), 2 graduate students and a postdoc. The project will also build on a science-education internship program that was developed with Crystal Cove State Park in California. The Park is host to more than 1.2 million visitors and 10,000 K-12 students each year. The outcome of this program will be topical science teaching kits that reside in the Marine Research Facility of the Park to be used by middle and high school teachers and students. These kits will connect marine microbiological research to the standards-based curricula of California and National Science Standards, educate the public on this NSF research and assist in the training of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) K-12 teachers. The results will be disseminated at national conferences, including American Educational Researchers Association (AERA) and National Association of Research on Science Teaching (NARST), while the curriculum and video productions will be hosted on the website of the UCI Center for Learning in the Arts Sciences and Sustainability.

Szczebak J.T.,Roger Williams University | Taylor D.L.,Roger Williams University
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2011

In this study, bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix; age 0-7, n=632) and their prey (forage fish, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton; n=2,005) were collected from the Narragansett Bay estuary (RI, USA), and total Hg concentration was measured in white muscle and whole-body tissues, respectively. Bluefish Hg concentrations were analyzed relative to fish length, prey Hg content, and ontogenetic shifts in habitat use and foraging ecology, the latter assessed using stomach content analysis (n=711) and stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope measurements (n=360). Diet and δ13C analysis showed that age 0 bluefish consumed both benthic and pelagic prey (silversides, sand shrimp, planktonic crustaceans; δ13C=-16.52‰), whereas age 1+ bluefish fed almost exclusively on pelagic forage fish (Atlantic menhaden, herring; δ13C=-17.33‰). Bluefish total Hg concentrations were significantly correlated with length (mean Hg=0.041 and 0.254ppm wet wt for age 0 and age 1+ bluefish, respectively). Furthermore, Hg biomagnification rates were maximal during bluefish early life stages and decelerated over time, resulting in relatively high Hg concentrations in age 0 fish. Rapid Hg accumulation in age 0 bluefish is attributed to these individuals occupying a comparable trophic level to age 1+ bluefish (δ15N=15.58 and 16.09‰; trophic level=3.55 and 3.71 for age 0 and age 1+ bluefish, respectively), as well as juveniles having greater standardized consumption rates of Hg-contaminated prey. Finally, bluefish larger than 30cm total length consistently had Hg levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.3ppm. As such, frequent consumption of bluefish could pose a human health risk, and preferentially consuming smaller bluefish may be an inadequate strategy for minimizing human dietary exposure to Hg. © 2011 SETAC.

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