Hartmann J.,EBS University for business and law |
Moeller S.,Roehampton University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2014
When it becomes publicly known that products are associated with suppliers that engage in unsustainable behaviors, consumers protest, as Nestlé, Zara, and Kimberly Clark, among others, have learned. The phenomenon by which consumers hold firms responsible for the unsustainable behavior of their upstream partners suggests the notion of "chain liability." This study aims to generate insights into the antecedents and consequences of such consumer responsibility attributions. Using data from four vignette-based survey experiments, the authors find that the chain liability effect increases if an environmental degradation incident (1) results from supplier behavior rather than force majeure, (2) results from a company decision rather than the decision of an individual employee, and (3) is more severe. Responsibility attributions do not differ with varying organizational distance from the supplier, firm size, strategic importance of the supplied product, or the existence of environmental management systems. The chain liability effect also creates strong risks for the focal firm; higher responsibility attributions increase consumers' anger and propensity to boycott. Therefore, firms should work to ensure sustainable behavior throughout the supply chain, to protect them from chain liability. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Gibson E.L.,Roehampton University
Behavioural Pharmacology | Year: 2012
Comfort eating, that is eating induced by negative affect, has been a core theme of explanations for overeating and obesity. Psychobiological explanations and processes underlying comfort eating are examined, as well as its prevalence in clinical and nonclinical populations, to consider who may be susceptible, whether certain foods are comforting, and what the implications for treatment may be. Comfort eating may occur in a substantial minority, particularly in women and the obese. Human and animal theories and models of emotional or stress-induced eating show some convergence, and may incorporate genetic predispositions such as impulsivity and reward sensitivity, associated with dopamine dysregulation underlying incentive salience. Comfort eaters show vulnerability to depression, emotional dysregulation and a need to escape negative affect and rumination. During negative affect, they preferentially consume sweet, fatty, energy-dense food, which may confer protection against stress, evidenced by suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response, although activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may itself drive appetite for these palatable foods, and the risk of weight gain is increased. Benefits to mood may be transient, but perhaps sufficient to encourage repeated attempts to prolong mood improvement or distract from negative rumination. Cognitive behavioural treatments may be useful, but reliable drug therapy awaits further pharmacogenomic developments. © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Vos J.,Roehampton University
Palliative and Supportive Care | Year: 2015
Objective: Many cancer patients report changes in how they experience meaning in life and being confronted with life's limitations, understanding themselves as being vulnerable, finite, and free beings. Many would like to receive psychotherapeutic help for this. However, psychotherapy for these concerns often either focuses primarily on meaning in life (e.g., meaning-centered/logotherapy) or on existential givens (e.g., supportive-expressive therapy). The relationship between meaning in life and existential givens seems relatively unexplored, and it seems unclear how therapists can integrate them. The present article aims to explore the relationship between meaning and existential givens. Method: Martin Heidegger was a founder of existentialism, inspiring both meaning therapies and supportive-expressive therapies. Therefore, we systematically apply his understanding of these phenomena, elucidated by four elements in his central metaphor of the house. Results: (1) Walls: In everyday life, we construct ordinary meanings, like the walls of a house, to protect us from our surroundings, wind, and rain. (2) Surroundings (existential givens): Confronted with cancer, the meanings/walls of this house may collapse; people may start seeing their surroundings and understand that they could have built their house at a different location, that is, they understand the broad range of possibilities in life, their responsibility to choose, and the contingency of current meanings. (3) How to design, build, and dwell: People may design, build, and dwell in their house in different ways: they may lock themselves in their house of impermeable ordinary meanings and deny the existence of existential surroundings; they may feel overwhelmed by all possibilities and be unable to experience meaning; they may build the house as their true home, use life's possibilities, and listen to their true self by building permeable existential meanings. (4). Navigator: People may experience inner guidance to navigate in designing, building, and dwelling in this house. Significance of results: Meaning in life and existential givens are intertwined. Therefore, we suggest that it is necessary for psycho-oncologists to address both. Further clinical validation is required. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.
Molina-Holgado E.,Laboratorio Of Neuroinflamacion |
Molina-Holgado F.,Roehampton University
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2010
Neuroimmune networks and the brain endocannabinoid system contribute to the maintenance of neurogenesis. Cytokines and chemokines are important neuroinflammatory mediators that are involved in the pathological processes resulting from brain trauma, ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. However, they are also involved in brain repair and recovery. Compelling evidence obtained, in vivo and in vitro, establish a dynamic interplay between the endocannabinoid system, the immune system and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC) in order to promote brain self-repair. Cross-talk between inflammatory mediators and NSC might have important consequences for neural development and brain repair. In addition, brain immune cells (microglia) support NSC renewal, migration and lineage specification. The proliferation and differentiation of multipotent NSC must be precisely controlled during the development of the CNS, as well as for adult brain repair. Although signalling through neuroimmune networks has been implicated in many aspects of neural development, how it affects NSC remains unclear. However, recent findings have clearly demonstrated that there is bi-directional cross-talk between NSC, and the neuroimmune network to control the signals involved in self-renewal and differentiation of NSC. Specifically, there is evidence emerging that neuroimmune interactions control the generation of new functional neurones from adult NSC. Here, we review the evidence that neuroimmune networks contribute to neurogenesis, focusing on the regulatory mechanisms that favour the immune system (immune cells and immune molecules) as a novel element in the coordination of the self-renewal, migration and differentiation of NSC in the CNS. In conjunction, these data suggest a novel mode of action for the immune system in neurogenesis that may be of therapeutic interest in the emerging field of brain repair. © 2010 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Dyall S.C.,Roehampton University
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2011
There is growing interest into researching omega-3 fatty acids; however, there are considerable variations in the methodologies employed. Many studies add oils to animal feed and under ambient conditions omega-3 fatty acids are particularly unstable and prone to autoxidation and peroxidative damage. It is therefore important to take specific precautions with the stock preparations and when preparing the experimental diets. There is a need for clarity in the reporting of methodologies employed, such as how oil preparations are stored and handled, how experimental diets are prepared, the potential effects of adding additional antioxidants, whether there is a clear rationale for the selection of control/placebo diets, which may be situation dependent, and consistency in expressing the experimental doses. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of these issues in the hope of promoting discussion, and potentially developing guidelines as to what represents best practice. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.