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Samples J.R.,Oregon Health And Science University | Samples J.R.,Rocky Vista University | Singh K.,Stanford University | Lin S.C.,University of California at San Francisco | And 4 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2011

Objective: To provide an evidence-based summary of the outcomes, repeatability, and safety of laser trabeculoplasty for open-angle glaucoma. Methods: A search of the peer-reviewed literature in the PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted in June 2008 and was last repeated in March 2010 with no date or language restrictions. The search yielded 637 unique citations, of which 145 were considered to be of possible clinical relevance for further review and were included in the evidence analysis. Results: Level I evidence indicates an acceptable long-term efficacy of initial argon laser trabeculoplasty for open-angle glaucoma compared with initial medical treatment. Among the remaining studies, level II evidence supports the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty for lowering intraocular pressure for patients with open-angle glaucoma. Level III evidence supports the efficacy of repeat use of laser trabeculoplasty. Conclusions: Laser trabeculoplasty is successful in lowering intraocular pressure for patients with open-angle glaucoma. At this time, there is no literature establishing the superiority of any particular form of laser trabeculoplasty. The theories of action of laser trabeculoplasty are not elucidated fully. Further research into the differences among the lasers used in trabeculoplasty, the repeatability of the procedure, and techniques of treatment is necessary. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology.


Schuenke M.D.,University of New England at Biddeford | Herman J.R.,Rocky Vista University | Hagerman F.C.,Ohio University | Hikida R.S.,Ohio University | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

Thirty-four untrained women participated in a 6-week program to investigate slow-speed versus "normal" speed resistance-training protocols. Subjects were divided into: slow-speed (SS), normal-speed/traditional-strength (TS), normal-speed/traditional muscular endurance (TE), and non-exercising control (C) groups. Leg press, squats, and knee extensions were performed 2 days/week for the Wrst week and 3 days/week for the remaining 5 weeks (∼2 min rest). The SS group performed 6-10 repetitions maximum (6-10RM) for each set with 10 s concentric (con) and 4 s eccentric (ecc) contractions. The TS and TE groups performed sets of 6-10RM and 20-30RM, respectively, at "normal" speed (1-2 s/con and ecc contractions). TE and SS trained at the same relative intensity (∼40-60% 1RM), whereas TS trained at ∼80-85% 1RM. Pre- and post-training muscle biopsies were analyzed for Wber-type composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and myosin heavy chain (MHC) content. The percentage of type IIX Wbers decreased and IIAX increased in all three training groups. However, only TS showed an increase in percentage of type IIA Wbers. CSA of Wber types I, IIA, and IIX increased in TS. In SS, only the CSA of IIA and IIX Wbers increased. These changes were supported by MHC data. No significant changes for any parameters were found for the C group. In conclusion, slow-speed strength training induced a greater adaptive response compared to training with a similar resistance at "normal" speed. However, training with a higher intensity at "normal" speed resulted in the greatest overall muscle Wber response in each of the variables assessed. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Glaser K.,Rocky Vista University
Maryland medicine : MM : a publication of MEDCHI, the Maryland State Medical Society | Year: 2012

The benefits of global health experiences on our students are vast and can be enhanced by our development of structured curricula and feedback systems that will maximize the benefits to students and to the populations they treat now and in the future.


Herman-Montemayor J.R.,Rocky Vista University | Hikida R.S.,Ohio University | Staron R.S.,Ohio University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2015

The purpose of this investigation was to identify adaptations in satellite cell (SC) content and myonuclear domain (MND) after 6-week slow-speed vs. "normal-speed" resistance training programs. Thirty-four untrained females were divided into slow speed (SS), traditional strength (TS), traditional muscular endurance (TE), and nontraining control (C) groups. Three sets each of leg press, squat, and knee extension were performed 2 days per week for the first week and 3 days per week for the following 5 weeks. The SS group performed 6-10 repetition maximum (6-10RM) for each set with 10-second concentric (con) and 4-second eccentric (ecc) contractions for each repetition. Traditional strength and TE performed 6-10RM and 20-30RM, respectively, at "normal" speed (1-2 seconds per con and ecc contractions). Traditional muscular endurance and SS trained at the same intensity (40-60% 1RM), whereas TS trained at 80-85% 1RM. Pretraining and posttraining muscle biopsies were analyzed for fiber cross-sectional area, fiber type, SC content, myonuclear number, and MND. Satellite cell content of type I, IIA, IIAX, and IIX fibers significantly increased in TS. However, SC content of only type IIAX and IIX fibers increased in SS, and there was no change in TE or C. Myonuclear number did not change in any group. Myonuclear domain of type I, IIA, IIAX, and IIX fibers increased in TS, whereas MND of only type IIA fibers increased in SS, and there was no change in TE or C. In conclusion, slow-speed resistance training increased SC content and MND more than training with a similar resistance at normal speed. However, high-intensity normal-speed training produced the greatest degree of fiber adaptation for each variable. © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Raab S.S.,University of Colorado at Denver | Grzybicki D.M.,Rocky Vista University
Cancer Cytopathology | Year: 2011

The process of cytologic-histologic correlation is highly valuable to the fields of both cytopathology and surgical pathology, because correlation provides a wealth of data that may be used to improve diagnostic testing and screening processes. In this study, overall improvement appeared to be driven largely by improvement in preanalytic Papanicolaou (Pap) test sampling, because longer institutional participation also was associated with improved sampling sensitivity. The authors hypothesized that Pap test sampling may have improved secondary to the introduction of liquid-based technology, which was implemented in many laboratories during the study time frame. Through the performance of continuous data tracking and retrospective root cause analysis to identify factors that may have influenced any observed changes in performance indicators, institutions may learn which initiatives are successful or unsuccessful. The future of correlation lies in the standardization of methods, the development of more formal and rigorous root cause analysis processes to determine system components underlying correlation discrepancies, and the active use of correlation data to redesign testing and screening processes for quality and patient safety improvement. © 2011 American Cancer Society.

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