Rocky Research | Date: 2015-07-27
A multi-paneled penetration resistant composite comprises a layered panel configuration that mitigates transmission of impact stress between adjacent, or proximate, penetration resistant composite panels. For example, areas of reduced density, provided by an intermediate stress mitigation panel positioned between adjacent composite panels and varying densities of composite layers within a composite panel, can mitigate transmission of stress between adjacent, or proximate, composite panels.
Rocky Research | Date: 2015-07-27
A multi-paneled penetration resistant composite comprises a layered panel configuration that mitigates transmission of impact stress. For example, areas of varying density within a multi-layer panel are configured to can mitigate transmission of stress between adjacent, or proximate, composite layers within a panel.
Urbanski S.P.,Rocky Research
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013
In the US, wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with air quality regulations. Fire emission factors (EF) are essential input for the emission models used to develop wildland fire emission inventories. Most previous studies quantifying wildland fire EF of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning conducted outside of the wildfire season. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in temperate forests of the conterminous US. The goal of this work is to provide information on emissions from wildfire-season forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountains, US. In August 2011, we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions over eight days from three wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg-1, 135 g kg-1, 7.30 g kg-1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in temperate forests, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. The fires sampled in this study burned in areas reported to have moderate to heavy components of standing dead trees and down dead wood due to insect activity and previous fire, but fuel consumption data was not available. However, an analysis of MCE and fuel consumption data from 18 prescribed fires reported in the literature indicates that the availability of coarse fuels and conditions favorable for the combustion of these fuels favors low MCE fires. This analysis suggests that fuel composition was an important factor contributing to the low MCE of the fires measured in this study. This study only measured EF for CO2, CO, and CH4; however, we used our study average MCE to provide rough estimates of wildfire-season EF for PM2.5 and four non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) using MCE and EF data reported in the literature. This analysis suggests the EFPM2.5 for wildfires that occur in forests of the northern Rocky Mountains may be significantly larger than those reported for temperate forests in the literature and that used in a recent national emission inventory. If the MCE of the fires sampled in this work are representative of the combustion characteristics of wildfire-season fires in similar forest types across the western US then the use of EF based on prescribed fires may result in an underestimate of wildfire PM2.5 and NMOC emissions. Given the magnitude of biomass consumed by western US wildfires, this may have important implications for the forecasting and management of regional air quality. ©Author(s) 2013.
Urbanski S.,Rocky Research
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2014
While the vast majority of carbon emitted by wildland fires is released as CO2, CO, and CH4, wildland fire smoke is nonetheless a rich and complex mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include significant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic aerosol and black carbon), which are short-lived climate forcers. In addition to CO2 and short-lived climate forcers, wildland fires release CO, non-methane organic compounds (NMOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2), NH3, and SO2. These species play a role in radiative forcing through their photochemical processing, which impacts atmospheric levels of CO2, CH4, tropospheric O3, and aerosol. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the chemical composition of emissions and emission factors for fires in United States vegetation types as pertinent to radiative forcing and climate. Emission factors are critical input for the models used to estimate wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol emission inventories. © 2013.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.74K | Year: 2015
Rocky Research proposes the development of an advanced high efficient, lightweight, multi-power, modular, and rugged refrigerator for the US Army. Rocky Research will use innovative technologies such as improved vapor-compression cycle with addition of Phase-Change Material, ejectors, and variable speed technology for energy efficiency; Electronics for multi-power capability; Carbon fiber structures for lightweight and ruggedness. Under the Phase I and Phase I option, the objectives are to develop the initial concept design To demonstrate the practical and technical feasibility of the proposed approach virtually with 3D models, and materially via benchtop/breadboard fabrications of the most critical component technologies such as the PCM and Ejector And validate empirical performance results with modeling and simulation The Phase I effort, along with the Phase I option, are intended to prove the viability of the proposed technologies and to establish a viable detailed design for phase II prototypes.
Rocky Research | Date: 2013-01-30
Described is a ballistic composite having a front impact surface and a back surface comprising. The composite may include a plurality of layers of woven fabric of polarized ballistic fibers and a metal salt, oxide, hydroxide or hydride polar bonded onto the woven fibers. In addition, a substantially water impermeable coating composition can be applied onto the layers of the woven fibers and/or on the exterior of the composite. In addition, the layers of woven fabric adjacent to the front impact surface can differ in composition from the layers of woven fabric adjacent to the back surface. In addition, the weave fabric making up the composite may have a cover factor of between about 0.6 and about 0.98.
Rocky Research | Date: 2015-04-28
Systems and methods are described for controlling the equalization of pressure between absorbing and desorbing reactors. In a first reaction cycle in a desorbing reactor a gaseous reactant is desorbed from a solid sorbent and concurrently in an absorbing reactor the gaseous reactant is absorbed on a solid sorbent. In a second reaction cycle, absorption and desorption are reversed in the reactors and at least a portion of the gaseous reactant desorbed from in the desorbing reactor is transferred to the absorbing reactor in an equalization process under computer control. The computer control may detect the demand on the system and adjust the amount of time for the equalization process to increase the efficiency of the system.
Rocky Research | Date: 2015-02-12
Features for distributing a sorber gas in cooling, heating or refrigeration systems with sorbers are disclosed. The sorbers may adsorb gas onto a sorbent material and desorb gas therefrom. Distribution of the gas to and from the sorber may be done with porous, rigid tubes. The tubes may be formed of composite material having pores. The pores may be implemented by flowing fluids through the composite material while the material cures. The sorbers may be reinforced with rods to provide greater strength and stability in load-inducing environments. The tubes may extend through the sorbent and thereby provide a channel for the gas to flow to and from the sorbent and the rest of the cooling, heating or refrigeration system.
Rocky Research | Date: 2015-09-11
A cooling system is disclosed. The cooling system may have an evaporator, an evaporator fan, a condenser, and at least one compressor. The compressor may be either a single speed or a variable speed compressor. In addition, the system can use a mechanical or electrical pulsed operation refrigerant flow control valve for controlling refrigerant flow to the evaporator.
Rocky Research | Date: 2014-01-07
A plunger driven solution pump is described that is configured to have a diaphragm that substantially conforms to the volume of a pump solution chamber when in a fully outwardly deflected state. The solution chamber may have an inlet port and an outlet port form in a concave solution chamber wall. A step, or ridge, may be formed along an outer periphery of the solution chamber wall and adjacent the inlet and outlet ports to prevent the diaphragm from becoming deformed from pressure against the solution chamber wall. This configuration may allow the pump to efficiently self-prime.