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Rauh M.J.,San Diego State University | Rauh M.J.,Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions | Nichols J.F.,San Diego State University | Barrack M.T.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Athletic Training | Year: 2010

Context: Prior authors have reported associations among increased risk of injury and factors of the female athlete triad, as defined before the 2007 American College of Sports Medicine position stand, in collegiate and adult club sport populations. Little is known about this relationship in an adolescent competitive sports population. Objective: To examine the relationship among disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD) and musculoskeletal injury among girls in high school sports. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The sample consisted of 163 female athletes competing in 8 interscholastic sports in southern California during the 2003-2004 school year. Each participant was followed throughout her respective sport season for occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries. Main Outcome Measure(s): Data collected included daily injury reports, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire that assessed disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan that measured BMD and lean tissue mass, anthropometric measurements, and a questionnaire on menstrual history and demographic characteristics. Results: Sixty-one athletes (37.4%) incurred 90 musculo-skeletal injuries. In our BMD z score model of ≤-1 SD, a history of oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea during the past year and low BMD (z score ≤-1 SD) were associated with the occurrence of musculoskeletal injury during the interscholastic sport season. In our BMD z score model of ≤-2 SDs, disordered eating (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire score ≥-4.0), a history of oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea during the past year, and a low BMD (z score ≤-2 SDs) were associated with musculoskeletal injury occurrence. Conclusions: These findings indicate that disordered eating, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea, and low BMD were associated with musculoskeletal injuries in these female high school athletes. Programs designed to identify and prevent disordered eating and menstrual dysfunction and to increase bone mass in athletes may help to reduce musculoskeletal injuries. © by the National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc.

Nichols J.F.,San Diego State University | Rauh M.J.,San Diego State University | Rauh M.J.,Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

This study tracked changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over a 7-year period in competitive male master cyclists (n = 19) and nonathletes (n = 18). Participants completed health/exercise history and food frequency (for calcium intake) questionnaires and underwent BMD testing by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At initial and 7-year assessments, there was a consistent pattern of lower BMD in cyclists compared to nonathletes at all bone sites measured. Repeated measures analysis of covariance adjusted for changes in body mass index, lean mass, calcium intake, and exercise habits indicated a significant interaction at the total body site, indicating greater BMD decline in cyclists than nonathletes (p < 0.05). Among all study participants, those who reported participating in weight training or impact exercise since the baseline assessment lost significantly less BMD at the spine and femoral neck compared to participants who reported no weight training/impact exercise since baseline (p < 0.05). A significantly greater percentage of cyclists than nonathletes met the International Society of Clinical Densitometry criteria for osteopenia or osteoporosis at baseline (84.2% vs. 50.0%) and at follow-up (89.5% vs. 61.1%, p < 0.05). Further, 6 of the 19 (31.6%) cyclists who had osteopenia at baseline became osteoporotic, compared to 1 (5.6%) of the nonathletes. The high percentage of male master cyclists with low BMD, combined with a high risk for fracture from falls associated with competitive cycling, warrant attention among this population. Coaches and health professionals interacting with cyclists need to promote alternative exercise such as weight training, plyometrics, or other high impact activity as a complement to cycle training to help minimize bone loss in this population. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Barrack M.T.,University of California at Davis | Van Loan M.D.,University of California at Davis | Rauh M.J.,Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions | Rauh M.J.,San Diego State University | Nichols J.F.,San Diego State University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Female adolescent runners have an elevated prevalence of low bone mass for age - an outcome that may be partially due to inadequate energy intake. Objective: The objective was to evaluate diet, menstrual history, serum hormone concentrations, and bone mass in female adolescent runners with normal or abnormal bone turnover. Design: Thirty-nine cross-country runners (age: 15.7 ± 0.2 y) participated in the study, which included a 7-d dietary assessment with the use of a food record and daily 24-h dietary recalls; serum measures of insulin-like growth factor I, estradiol, leptin, parathyroid hormone, progesterone, triiodothyronine, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and cross-linked C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX); an evaluation of height, weight, bone mass, and body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; and a questionnaire to assess menses and sports participation. Age- and sex-specific BAP and CTX concentrations of at least the 97th percentile and no greater than the third percentile, respectively, were considered abnormal. Results: All abnormal BAP and CTX concentrations fell within the elevated (≥97%) range. Runners with an elevated bone turnover (EBT) (n = 13) had a lower body mass, fewer menstrual cycles in the past year, lower estradiol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, and a higher prevalence of body mass index <10% for age, vitamin D insufficiency, amenorrhea, and low bone mass. Girls with EBT consumed less than the recommended amounts of energy and had a higher prevalence of consuming <1300 mg Ca than did those with normal bone turnover. Conclusions: Runners with EBT had a profile consistent with energy deficiency. Nutritional support to increase energy, calcium intake, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations may improve bone mineral accrual in young runners with EBT. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01059968. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.

Algar L.,Northeast Orthopaedic and Hand Surgery | Valdes K.,Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions
Journal of Hand Therapy | Year: 2014

In the hand therapy clinic, smartphones can be used as an educational resource, to view a photo or video of a home exercise program, or as a method of electronically documenting progress related to healing from an injury. Smartphone applications may also serve as appropriate therapy interventions to address deficits often presenting with common hand injuries. For individuals with trapeziometacarpal arthrosis, gaming can encourage radial abduction range of motion and neuromuscular control required for joint stability. People with distal radius fractures may benefit from smartphone applications for range of motion and proprioceptive training. These treatments may assist with addressing client-centered goals and be motivating in the current technology driven times. © 2014 Hanley and Belfus, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Barrack M.T.,University of California at Davis | Van Loan M.D.,University of California at Davis | Rauh M.J.,Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions | Rauh M.J.,San Diego State University | Nichols J.F.,San Diego State University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2011

Endurance runners with low bone mass during adolescence may risk attaining a low peak bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood. Alternatively, they may mature late and undergo delayed bone mineral accumulation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate 40 adolescent runners (aged 15.9 ± 0.2 yr) at two time points, approximately 3 yr apart, to assess bone mass status and identify variables associated with bone mass change. Methods: Follow-up measures included a questionnaire to assess menstrual status, training, and sports participation history, height and weight, and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to assess total body, total hip, and lumbar spine BMD, bone mineral content (BMC), BMD z-score, and body composition. We used -1 and -2 BMD z-score cutoffs to categorize runners with low bone mass. Results: Eighty-seven percent of girls with low BMD at baseline had low BMD at the follow-up. Girls with low compared with normal baseline BMD had lower follow-up adjusted total body (2220.4 ± 65.8 vs 2793.1 ± 68.2 g, P < 0.001), total hip (27.0 ± 1 vs 33.9 ± 1.0 g, P < 0.05), and lumbar spine (47.8 ± 2.0 vs 66.3 ± 2.2 g, P < 0.001) BMC values. Variables related to 3-yr training volume, menstrual function, age, developmental stage, and change in body mass explained 29%-54% of the variability in BMC change. Conclusions: The majority of adolescent runners with low BMD at baseline had low BMD after a 3-yr follow-up. Our observations suggest that "catch-up" accrual may be difficult and, thus, emphasize the importance of gaining adequate bone mineral during the early adolescent years. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

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