New York City, NY, United States
New York City, NY, United States

The Rockefeller University is an American private university located in New York City in the United States, offering postgraduate and postdoctoral education. It conducts research mainly in biological science and medical science, and has produced or attracted many Nobel laureates. It has the highest number of Nobel Prizes in relation to personnel involved in research in the world. The Rockefeller University is located on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue.Marc Tessier-Lavigne—previously executive vice president of research and chief scientific officer at Genentech—became the university's tenth president on March 16, 2011.The Rockefeller University Press publishes the Journal of Experimental Medicine, the Journal of Cell Biology, and The Journal of General Physiology. Wikipedia.

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The invention provides a polypeptide containing at least one IgG Fc region, wherein said at least one IgG Fc region is glycosylated with at least one galactose moiety connected to a respective terminal sialic acid moiety by a 2,6 linkage, and wherein said polypeptide having a higher anti-inflammatory activity as compared to an unpurified antibody.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-09-2016 | Award Amount: 6.75M | Year: 2017

The main goal of HIVACAR proposal is to change the current paradigm of HIV treatment by obtaining a functional cure for HIV (i.e., control of viral load to levels below the threshold of 50 copies/ml and maintenance of high CD4\ T-cell count after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy) thanks to effectively targeting residual virus replication and viral reservoirs. In order to do so, the planned novel strategy is to successfully combine immune-based therapies, including therapeutic vaccines and broadly neutralizing antibodies with latency reversing agents, in a proof-of-concept phase IIa clinical trial. HIVACAR project will lead to a reduction of the actual costs related to HIV treatment and management and of the social public health as well as an improvement in the patients quality of life. HIVACAR project has been conceived under the framework of responsible research and innovation, so patients and other stakeholders will have a key role from the inception of the project until obtaining the results. Patients will be perfectly aware of how this therapy has been conceived and the real impact and change in their actual quality of life, as well as how the clinical trial has been designed and the consequences of participating in it. In addition, patients (and the general population) will tailor the project and its results dissemination and communication. This patient engagement will not be limited to the clinical trial but also to the rest of the activities of the project, so patients and the general society will be aware of how the research is developed and can include the patients point of view in the research activities. In addition, the socio-economic and psycho-social impact of the new treatment will be also analysed so overwhelming data on the benefits and impact of the new treatment will be obtained and shown to all the stakeholders.

Stark G.,Cleveland Clinic | Darnell J.,Rockefeller University
Immunity | Year: 2012

We look back on the discoveries that the tyrosine kinases TYK2 and JAK1 and the transcription factors STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9 are required for the cellular response to type I interferons. This initial description of the JAK-STAT pathway led quickly to additional discoveries that type II interferons and many other cytokines signal through similar mechanisms. This well-understood pathway now serves as a paradigm showing how information from protein-protein contacts at the cell surface can be conveyed directly to genes in the nucleus. We also review recent work on the STAT proteins showing the importance of several different posttranslational modifications, including serine phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, and sumoylation. These remarkably proficient proteins also provide noncanonical functions in transcriptional regulation and they also function in mitochondrial respiration and chromatin organization in ways that may not involve transcription at all. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

Several strong conclusions emerge concerning pre-mRNA processing from both old and newer experiments. The RNAPII complex is involved with pre-mRNA processing through binding of processing proteins to the CTD (carboxyl terminal domain) of the largest RNAPII subunit. These interactions are necessary for efficient processing, but whether factor binding to the CTD and delivery to splicing sites is obligatory or facilitatory is unsettled. Capping, addition of an m7Gppp residue (cap) to the initial transcribed residue of a pre-mRNA, occurs within seconds. Splicing of pre-mRNA by spliceosomes at particular sites is most likely committed during transcription by the binding of initiating processing factors and ∼50% of the time is completed in mammalian cells before completion of the primary transcript. This fact has led to an outpouring in the literature about "cotranscriptional splicing." However splicing requires several minutes for completion and can take longer. The RNAPII complex moves through very long introns and also through regions dense with alternating exons and introns at an average rate of ∼3 kb per min and is, therefore, not likely detained at each splice site for more than a few seconds, if at all. Cleavage of the primary transcript at the 3′ end and polyadenylation occurs within 30 sec or less at recognized polyA sites, and the majority of newly polyadenylated pre-mRNA molecules are much larger than the average mRNA. Finally, it seems quite likely that the nascent RNA most often remains associated with the chromosomal locus being transcribed until processing is complete, possibly acquiring factors related to the transport of the new mRNA to the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2013 RNA Society.

Marraffini L.A.,Rockefeller University
Nature | Year: 2015

Prokaryotic organisms are threatened by a large array of viruses and have developed numerous defence strategies. Among these, only clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity against foreign elements. Upon viral injection, a small sequence of the viral genome, known as a spacer, is integrated into the CRISPR locus to immunize the host cell. Spacers are transcribed into small RNA guides that direct the cleavage of the viral DNA by Cas nucleases. Immunization through spacer acquisition enables a unique form of evolution whereby a population not only rapidly acquires resistance to its predators but also passes this resistance mechanism vertically to its progeny. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Foley E.A.,Sloan Kettering Institute | Kapoor T.M.,Rockefeller University
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013

In eukaryotes, chromosome segregation during cell division is facilitated by the kinetochore, a multiprotein structure that is assembled on centromeric DNA. The kinetochore attaches chromosomes to spindle microtubules, modulates the stability of these attachments and relays the microtubule-binding status to the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a cell cycle surveillance pathway that delays chromosome segregation in response to unattached kinetochores. Recent studies are shaping current thinking on how each of these kinetochore-centred processes is achieved, and how their integration ensures faithful chromosome segregation, focusing on the essential roles of kinase-phosphatase signalling and the microtubule-binding KMN protein network. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Steinman R.M.,Rockefeller University
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2012

A properly functioning adaptive immune system signifies the best features of life. It is diverse beyond compare, tolerant without fail, and capable of behaving appropriately with a myriad of infections and other challenges. Dendritic cells are required to explain how this remarkable system is energized and directed. I frame this article in terms of the major decisions that my colleagues and I have made in dendritic cell science and some of the guiding themes at the time the decisions were made. As a result of progress worldwide, there is now evidence of a central role for dendritic cells in initiating antigen-specific immunity and tolerance. The in vivo distribution and development of a previously unrecognized white cell lineage is better understood, as is the importance of dendritic cell maturation to link innate and adaptive immunity in response to many stimuli. Our current focus is on antigen uptake receptors on dendritic cells. These receptors enable experiments involving selective targeting of antigens in situ and new approaches to vaccine design in preclinical and clinical systems. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Schneider W.M.,Rockefeller University | Chevillotte M.D.,Rockefeller University | Rice C.M.,Rockefeller University
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2014

Interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) products take on a number of diverse roles. Collectively, they are highly effective at resisting and controlling pathogens. In this review, we begin by introducing interferon (IFN) and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway to highlight features that impact ISG production. Next, we describe ways in which ISGs both enhance innate pathogen-sensing capabilities and negatively regulate signaling through the JAK-STAT pathway. Several ISGs that directly inhibit virus infection are described with an emphasis on those that impact early and late stages of the virus life cycle. Finally, we describe ongoing efforts to identify and characterize antiviral ISGs, and we provide a forward-looking perspective on the ISG landscape. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Barrangou R.,North Carolina State University | Marraffini L.A.,Rockefeller University
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Chait B.T.,Rockefeller University
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Mass spectrometry (MS) is rapidly becoming an essential tool for biologists and biochemists in their efforts to throw light on molecular mechanisms within cellular systems. Used in unison with genome sequence data, MS has developed into the method of choice for identifying proteins, elucidating their posttranslational modifications, and reading out their functional interactions. Variations of the method have even begun to enable accurate mass determination of intact protein complexes, allowing for direct determination of subunit stoichiometry and the interactions between the subunits. Advances in mass spectrometric technologies have also led to great improvements in our ability to probe and define many of the other key molecular players in cells, including the all important lipid components. We provide here some perspectives on the explosion of applications of MS to protein science, systems biology, proteomics, lipidomics, and cell biology in general. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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