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Rochester BioVenture Center

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Rochester, NY, United States

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Polevoda B.,University of Rochester | McDougall W.M.,University of Rochester | McDougall W.M.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Tun B.N.,University of Rochester | And 6 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2015

APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA deaminase activity requires a holoenzyme complex whose assembly on nascent viral reverse transcripts initiates with A3G dimers binding to ssDNA followed by formation of higherorder A3G homo oligomers. Catalytic activity is inhibited when A3G binds to RNA. Our prior studies suggested that RNA inhibited A3G binding to ssDNA. In this report, near equilibrium binding and gel shift analyses showed that A3G assembly and disassembly on ssDNA was an ordered process involving A3G dimers and multimers thereof. Although, fluorescence anisotropy showed that A3G had similar nanomolar affinity for RNA and ssDNA, RNA stochastically dissociated A3G dimers and higher-order oligomers from ssDNA, suggesting a different modality for RNA binding. Mass spectrometry mapping of A3G peptides cross-linked to nucleic acid suggested ssDNA only bound to three peptides, amino acids (aa) 181-194 in the N-terminus and aa 314-320 and 345-374 in the C-terminus that were part of a continuous exposed surface. RNA bound to these peptides and uniquely associated with three additional peptides in the N- terminus, aa 15-29, 41-52 and 83-99, that formed a continuous surface area adjacent to the ssDNA binding surface. The data predict a mechanistic model of RNA inhibition of ssDNA binding to A3G in which competitive and allosteric interactions determine RNA-bound versus ssDNA-bound conformational states.


Smith H.C.,NY | Smith H.C.,Cancer Center Rochester | Smith H.C.,Rochester BioVenture Center | Bennett R.P.,NY | And 4 more authors.
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

APOBEC1 is a cytidine deaminase that edits messenger RNAs and was the first enzyme in the APOBEC family to be functionally characterized. Under appropriate conditions APOBEC1 also deaminates deoxycytidine in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The other ten members of the APOBEC family have not been fully characterized however several have deoxycytidine deaminase activity on ssDNAs. Despite the nucleic acid substrate preferences of different APOBEC proteins, a common feature appears to be their intrinsic ability to bind to RNA as well as to ssDNA. RNA binding to APOBEC proteins together with protein-protein interactions, post-translation modifications and subcellular localization serve as biological modulators controlling the DNA mutagenic activity of these potentially genotoxic proteins. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Polevoda B.,University of Rochester | McDougall W.M.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Bennett R.P.,Rochester BioVenture Center | Salter J.D.,Rochester BioVenture Center | Smith H.C.,Rochester BioVenture Center
Methods | Year: 2016

There are eleven members in the human APOBEC family of proteins that are evolutionarily related through their zinc-dependent cytidine deaminase domains. The human APOBEC gene clusters arose on chromosome 6 and 22 through gene duplication and divergence to where current day APOBEC proteins are functionally diverse and broadly expressed in tissues. APOBEC serve enzymatic and non enzymatic functions in cells. In both cases, formation of higher-order structures driven by APOBEC protein-protein interactions and binding to RNA and/or single stranded DNA are integral to their function. In some circumstances, these interactions are regulatory and modulate APOBEC activities. We are just beginning to understand how macromolecular interactions drive processes such as APOBEC subcellular compartmentalization, formation of holoenzyme complexes, gene targeting, foreign DNA restriction, anti-retroviral activity, formation of ribonucleoprotein particles and APOBEC degradation. Protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid cross-linking methods coupled with mass spectrometry, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, glycerol gradient sedimentation, fluorescence anisotropy and APOBEC deaminase assays are enabling mapping of interacting surfaces that are essential for these functions. The goal of this methods review is through example of our research on APOBEC3G, describe the application of cross-linking methods to characterize and quantify macromolecular interactions and their functional implications. Given the homology in structure and function, it is proposed that these methods will be generally applicable to the discovery process for other APOBEC and RNA and DNA editing and modifying proteins. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Rochester BioVenture Center and University of Rochester
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nucleic acids research | Year: 2015

APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA deaminase activity requires a holoenzyme complex whose assembly on nascent viral reverse transcripts initiates with A3G dimers binding to ssDNA followed by formation of higher-order A3G homo oligomers. Catalytic activity is inhibited when A3G binds to RNA. Our prior studies suggested that RNA inhibited A3G binding to ssDNA. In this report, near equilibrium binding and gel shift analyses showed that A3G assembly and disassembly on ssDNA was an ordered process involving A3G dimers and multimers thereof. Although, fluorescence anisotropy showed that A3G had similar nanomolar affinity for RNA and ssDNA, RNA stochastically dissociated A3G dimers and higher-order oligomers from ssDNA, suggesting a different modality for RNA binding. Mass spectrometry mapping of A3G peptides cross-linked to nucleic acid suggested ssDNA only bound to three peptides, amino acids (aa) 181-194 in the N-terminus and aa 314-320 and 345-374 in the C-terminus that were part of a continuous exposed surface. RNA bound to these peptides and uniquely associated with three additional peptides in the N- terminus, aa 15-29, 41-52 and 83-99, that formed a continuous surface area adjacent to the ssDNA binding surface. The data predict a mechanistic model of RNA inhibition of ssDNA binding to A3G in which competitive and allosteric interactions determine RNA-bound versus ssDNA-bound conformational states.


PubMed | Rochester BioVenture Center and University of Rochester
Type: | Journal: Methods (San Diego, Calif.) | Year: 2016

There are eleven members in the human APOBEC family of proteins that are evolutionarily related through their zinc-dependent cytidine deaminase domains. The human APOBEC gene clusters arose on chromosome 6 and 22 through gene duplication and divergence to where current day APOBEC proteins are functionally diverse and broadly expressed in tissues. APOBEC serve enzymatic and non enzymatic functions in cells. In both cases, formation of higher-order structures driven by APOBEC protein-protein interactions and binding to RNA and/or single stranded DNA are integral to their function. In some circumstances, these interactions are regulatory and modulate APOBEC activities. We are just beginning to understand how macromolecular interactions drive processes such as APOBEC subcellular compartmentalization, formation of holoenzyme complexes, gene targeting, foreign DNA restriction, anti-retroviral activity, formation of ribonucleoprotein particles and APOBEC degradation. Protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid cross-linking methods coupled with mass spectrometry, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, glycerol gradient sedimentation, fluorescence anisotropy and APOBEC deaminase assays are enabling mapping of interacting surfaces that are essential for these functions. The goal of this methods review is through example of our research on APOBEC3G, describe the application of cross-linking methods to characterize and quantify macromolecular interactions and their functional implications. Given the homology in structure and function, it is proposed that these methods will be generally applicable to the discovery process for other APOBEC and RNA and DNA editing and modifying proteins.


Prohaska K.M.,Rochester BioVenture Center | Bennett R.P.,Rochester BioVenture Center | Salter J.D.,Rochester BioVenture Center | Smith H.C.,Rochester BioVenture Center
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA | Year: 2014

Cytidine deaminases have important roles in the regulation of nucleoside/deoxynucleoside pools for DNA and RNA synthesis. The APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases (named after the first member of the family that was described, Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Catalytic Subunit 1, also known as APOBEC1 or A1) is a fascinating group of mutagenic proteins that use RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as substrates for their cytidine or deoxycytidine deaminase activities. APOBEC proteins and base-modification nucleic acid editing have been the subject of numerous publications, reviews, and speculation. These proteins play diverse roles in host cell defense, protecting cells from invading genetic material, enabling the acquired immune response to antigens and changing protein expression at the level of the genetic code in mRNA or DNA. The amazing power these proteins have for interphase cell functions relies on structural and biochemical properties that are beginning to be understood. At the same time, the substrate selectivity of each member in the family and their regulation remains to be elucidated. This review of the APOBEC family will focus on an open question in regulation, namely what role the interactions of these proteins with RNA have in editing substrate recognition or allosteric regulation of DNA mutagenic and host-defense activities. WIREs RNA 2014, 5:493-508. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1226 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: KMP, RPB, and JDS are employees of OyaGen Inc, which is a drug development biotechnology company engaged in the therapeutic targeting of editing enzymes. Dr. Smith is the founder of OyaGen and, as a consultant, serves as CEO and CSO for OyaGen. Dr. Smith is a tenured full professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Center for RNA Biology and Cancer Center at the University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry in Rochester, NY. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


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