Louisville, KY, United States
Louisville, KY, United States

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Wahlang B.,University of Louisville | Prough R.A.,University of Louisville | Falkner K.C.,University of Louisville | Hardesty J.E.,University of Louisville | And 8 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2016

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants associated with non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis (NASH), diabetes, and obesity. We previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, induced steatohepatitis and activated nuclear receptors in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. This study aims to evaluate PCB interactions with the pregnane-xenobiotic receptor (Pxr: Nr1i2) and constitutive androstane receptor (Car: Nr1i3) in NASH. Wild type C57Bl/6 (WT), Pxrf and Car-/- mice were fed the high fat diet (42% milk fat) and exposed to a single dose of Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg) in this 12-week study. Metabolic phenotyping and analysis of serum, liver, and adipose was performed. Steatohepatitis was pathologically similar in all Aroclor-exposed groups, while Pxr-/- mice displayed higher basal pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Pxr repressed Car expression as evident by increased basal Car/Cyp2b10 expression in Pxr-/- mice. Both Pxr-/- and Car-/- mice showed decreased basal respiratory exchange rate (RER) consistent with preferential lipid metabolism. Aroclor increased RER and carbohydrate metabolism, associated with increased light cycle activity in both knockouts, and decreased food consumption in the Car-/- mice. Aroclor exposure improved insulin sensitivity in WT mice but not glucose tolerance. The Aroclor-exposed, Pxr-/- mice displayed increased gluconeogenic gene expression. Lipid-oxidative gene expression was higher in WT and Pxr-/- mice although RER was not changed, suggesting PCB-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, Pxr and Car regulated inflammation, behavior, and energy metabolism in PCB-mediated NASH. Future studies should address the 'off-target' effects of PCBs in steatohepatitis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved.

Wahlang B.,University of Louisville | Song M.,University of Louisville | Beier J.I.,University of Louisville | Cameron Falkner K.,University of Louisville | And 8 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20. mg/kg or 200. mg/kg in corn oil) for 12. weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260. +. HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20. mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200. mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200. mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant "second hit" in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. © 2014.

Wahlang B.,University of Louisville | Falkner K.C.,University of Louisville | Gregory B.,University of Louisville | Ansert D.,University of Louisville | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that are detectable in the serum of all American adults. Amongst PCB congeners, PCB 153 has the highest serum level. PCBs have been dose-dependently associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiological studies. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine mechanisms by which PCB 153 worsens diet-induced obesity and NAFLD in male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male C57BL6/J mice were fed either control or 42% milk fat diet for 12 weeks with or without PCB 153 coexposure (50 mg/kg ip ×4). Glucose tolerance test was performed, and plasma and tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology and gene expression. Results: In control diet-fed mice, addition of PCB 153 had minimal effects on any of the measured parameters. However, PCB 153 treatment in high-fat-fed mice was associated with increased visceral adiposity, hepatic steatosis and plasma adipokines including adiponectin, leptin, resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Likewise, coexposure reduced expression of hepatic genes implicated in β-oxidation while increasing the expression of genes associated with lipid biosynthesis. Regardless of diet, PCB 153 had no effect on insulin resistance or tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. Conclusion: PCB 153 is an obesogen that exacerbates hepatic steatosis, alters adipocytokines and disrupts normal hepatic lipid metabolism when administered with HFD but not control diet. Because all US adults have been exposed to PCB 153, this particular nutrient-toxicant interaction potentially impacts human obesity/NAFLD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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