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Heilbronn L.K.,University of Adelaide | Heilbronn L.K.,South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute | Heilbronn L.K.,Robinson Research Institute | Liu B.,University of Adelaide | Liu B.,South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute
Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation

In diet induced and genetically obese rodent models, adipose tissue is associated with macrophage infiltration, which promotes a low grade inflammatory state and the development of insulin resistance. In humans, obesity is also closely linked with macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue, a pro-inflammatory phenotype and insulin resistance. However, whether macrophage infiltration is a direct contributor to the development of insulin resistance that occurs in response to weight gain, or is a later consequence of the obese state is unclear. There are a number of concomitant changes that occur during adipose tissue expansion, including the number and size of adipocytes, the vasculature and the extracellular matrix. In this review, we will examine evidence for and against the role of macrophage recruitment into adipose tissue in promoting the development of insulin resistance in rodents and humans, as well as discuss the emerging role of macrophages in mediating healthy adipose tissue expansion during periods of caloric excess. © 2014 by De Gruyter. Source

Perano S.J.,Womens and Childrens Hospital | Perano S.J.,Robinson Research Institute | Rayner C.K.,Discipline of Medicine | Kritas S.,Womens and Childrens Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Context: Gastric emptying is a critical determinant of postprandial glycemic control in health and type 1 diabetes. There are few studies that assess the relationship between gastric emptying and postprandial glycaemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Objective: The objectives of the study were to quantify gastric emptying in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and examine its relationship to postprandial glycaemia and autonomic function. Design: This was a case-control study. Gastric half-emptying time of a solid meal was measured by a13C-octanoate breath test. Cardio-autonomic function was measured by heart rate variability. Chronic and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated by questionnaire and visual analog scales. Blood glucose concentrations were monitored frequently during the study. Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary pediatric hospital in South Australia. Participants: Thirty adolescents (aged 15 ± 2.5 y) with type 1 diabetes and age- and sex-matched controls (gastric emptying, n = 20; heart rate variability, n = 135) participated in the study. Main Outcome: Gastric half-emptying time was the main outcome in the study. Results: Gastric emptying was more rapid in subjects with type 1 diabetes than controls [median half emptying time 78 (interquartile range 61-99) vs 109 (interquartile range 71-124) min, P = .02]. The postprandial rise in blood glucose at 60 minutes was strongly related to gastric half-emptying time (R = -0.65, P = .0001). Gastric emptying was slower in subjects with fasting hyperglycemia but was not related to heart rate variability. Nausea, bloating, and anxiety were related to fasting glycemia (P = .03). Conclusion: Rapid gastric emptying is a major determinant of postprandial glycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. This observation has significant implications for therapy. Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Source

Wilson R.L.,Robinson Research Institute | Wilson R.L.,University of Adelaide | Buckberry S.,Robinson Research Institute | Buckberry S.,University of Adelaide | And 15 more authors.

Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several pregnancy complications attributed to impaired or abnormal placental function, but there are few clues indicating the mechanistic role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis. To further understand the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated activity in placental function, we used heterozygous Vdr ablated C57Bl6 mice to assess fetal growth, morphological parameters and global gene expression in Vdr null placentae. Twelve Vdr+/- dams were mated at 10-12 weeks of age with Vdr+/- males. At day 18.5 of the 19.5 day gestation in our colony, females were euthanised and placental and fetal samples were collected, weighed and subsequently genotyped as either Vdr+/+, Vdr+/- or Vdr-/-. Morphological assessment of placentae using immunohistochemistry was performed and RNA was extracted and subject to microarray analysis. This revealed 25 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between Vdr+/+ and Vdr-/- placentae. The greatest difference was a 6.47-fold change in expression of Cyp24a1 which was significantly lower in the Vdr-/- placentae (P<0.01). Other differentially expressed genes in Vdr-/- placentae included those involved in RNA modification (Snord123), autophagy (Atg4b), cytoskeletal modification (Shroom4), cell signalling (Plscr1, Pex5) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling (Deptor and Prr5). Interrogation of the upstream sequence of differentially expressed genes identified that many contain putative vitamin D receptor elements (VDREs). Despite the gene expression differences, this did not contribute to any differences in overall placental morphology, nor was function affected as there was no difference in fetal growth as determined by fetal weight near term. Given our dams still expressed a functional VDR gene, our results suggest that cross-talk between the maternal decidua and the placenta, as well as maternal vitamin D status, may be more important in determining pregnancy outcome than conceptus expression of VDR. © 2015 Wilson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Tuck A.R.,Robinson Research Institute | Robker R.L.,Robinson Research Institute | Norman R.J.,Robinson Research Institute | Hickey T.E.,Robinson Research Institute
Journal of Ovarian Research

Background: The c-kit/kit ligand (KITL) signalling axis is an essential component of ovarian folliculogenesis in mammals, but little is known about expression and localisation of its key components in the ovaries of reproductive age women. This study aimed to characterise mRNA expression of c-kit and KITL isoforms and the localisation of c-kit and KITL proteins in adult human premenopausal ovaries. Methods: This study utilised granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles of women undergoing assisted reproduction, pieces of ovarian tissue obtained from premenopausal women undergoing gynaecological surgeries and archival paraffin-embedded premenopausal ovarian tissues. Methodology included PCR for gene expression and Western blot or immunohistochemistry for protein expression. Results: Both c-kit mRNA isoforms, known as GNNK+ and GNNK-, were detected in human ovarian cortex, while KITL protein isoforms (KITL1 and KITL2) were present in ovarian cortex and human granulosa cells. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of KITL and c-kit protein in multiple cell types within follicles throughout development, from primordial follicles to large antral follicles, in addition to atretic follicles. Oocytes of all follicle stages expressed c-kit protein exclusively. Interestingly, unlike animal models, expression of both proteins displayed a less cell-type specific distribution with immunostaining present in granulosa, theca and stromal cells, suggesting that autocrine signalling occurs within the human ovary. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that c-kit/KITL signalling also occurs in the human ovary, as established in various animal models, and may involve previously unknown autocrine signalling. © 2015 Tuck et al. Source

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