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Johnson, NJ, United States

Lavizzo-Mourey R.,Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Health Affairs | Year: 2011

The root causes of poor health experienced by many who live in low-income neighborhoods-such as the lack of access to health care, limited food choices, and exposure to environmental hazards-are well documented, but often go beyond the scope of the health care delivery system. But that is beginning to change. The health sector has begun to collaborate with the community development sector, which for decades has been working in low-income neighborhoods. Encouraging local and national examples of these new partnerships abound. They include an effort in Seattle, Washington, to reduce exposure to allergens and irritants among low-income asthmatic children, and a $500 million federal program to finance the operation of grocery stores in what have previously been urban "food deserts." To nurture such efforts, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Federal Reserve System, and others have sponsored a series of "healthy community" forums in US cities. In this article we explore the growing partnerships between the health and community development sectors as well as the challenges they face, and we offer policy recommendations that might help them succeed. © 2011 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

Rogerson B.,Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Health Affairs | Year: 2014

Community development seeks to address the consequences of poverty through initiatives that improve housing, economic opportunity, service availability, and community capacity. There is growing recognition that the fields of community development and public health have much in common with regard to target populations, objectives, and challenges. Individual and neighborhood-level poverty are well-documented risk factors for illness and premature death. But relatively few developers systematically analyze how their projects could affect the health of the target community. Tools and metrics that facilitate incorporating health into planning, financing, and implementing new community development projects and programs will foster more widespread and productive collaboration between these two fields. We propose a simple framework to facilitate the identification and measurement of potential health effects, actions to optimize anticipated positive impacts, and strategies to mitigate potential negative impacts. The framework is drawn from an analysis of health impact assessments and includes four elements: identifying the health status of the population served, considering neighborhood-level influences on health, building design features important to health, and incorporating community engagement and capacity-building activities into the initiative. © 2014 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

Brennan L.K.,Washington University in St. Louis | Brownson R.C.,Washington University in St. Louis | Orleans C.T.,Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Investigators developed a review system to evaluate the growing literature on policy and environmental strategies to prevent childhood obesity. More than 2000 documents published between January 2000 and May 2009 in the scientific and grey literature were identified (2008-2009) and systematically analyzed (2009-2012). These focused on policy or environmental strategies to reduce obesity/overweight, increase physical activity, and/or improve nutrition/diet among youth (aged 3-18 years). Guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework, investigators abstracted studies of 24 intervention strategies and assessed evidence for their effectiveness (i.e., study design, intervention duration, and outcomes) and population impact (i.e., effectiveness and reach - participation or exposure, and representativeness) in 142 evaluation study groupings and 254 associational study groupings (n=396 groupings of 600 peer-reviewed studies). The 24 strategies yielded 25 classifications (school wellness policies yielded nutrition and physical activity classifications): 1st-tier effective (n=5); 2nd-tier effective (n=6); "promising" (n=5); or "emerging" (n=9). Evidence for intervention effectiveness was reported in 56% of the evaluation, and 77% of the associational, study groupings. Among the evaluation study groupings, only 49% reported sufficient data for population impact ratings, and only 22% qualified for a rating of high population impact. Effectiveness and impact ratings were summarized in graphic evidence maps, displaying effects/associations with behavioral and obesity/overweight outcomes. This paper describes the results and products of the review, with recommendations for policy research and practice. © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source

Marks J.S.,Robert Wood Johnson Foundation | Turner N.,Vera Institute of Justice
Health Affairs | Year: 2014

As a group, jail-involved individuals, which we define here as people with a history of arrest and jail admission in the recent past, carry a heavy illness burden, with high rates of infectious and chronic disease as well as mental illness and substance use. Because these people have tended to also be uninsured, jail frequently has been their only regular source of health care. Three thousand three hundred local and county jails processed 11.6 million admissions during the twelve-month period ending midyear 2012. The Urban Institute estimated as much as 30 percent of some local corrections budgets is allocated to inmate health care services. This investment is largely lost when people are released back into the community, where they typically do not get treatment. For people with untreated substance use or mental illness, this issue reaches beyond public health, because without treatment, these people are at heightened risk of cycling into and out of jail for low-level, nonviolent offenses. This article offers eight policy recommendations to build a continuum of care that will ensure that jail-involved people get the care they need, regardless of where they reside. With the expansion of Medicaid eligibility under the Affordable Care Act, there is now a critical opportunity to bring the jail-involved population into the mainstream health care system, which benefits the health care and criminal justice systems and society at large © 2014 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

Williams D.R.,Harvard University | Marks J.,Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Health Affairs | Year: 2011

Large differences in the opportunities and resources that Americans have to be healthy have led to sizable variations in health by geography, race and ethnicity, income level, and education. By enhancing the opportunities for good health in the places where we live, learn, work, play, and worship, community development initiatives can be important drivers of improved health. As articles in this month's issue of Health Affairs attest, community development and public health are two forces that often have the same goals. Because there has been little research to date documenting which aspects of community development could have the greatest impact on health, it will be increasingly necessary to rigorously evaluate the impact of various interventions to guide policy makers in identifying the most important measures to take in an environment of constrained financial resources. © 2011 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Source

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