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Chicago Ridge, IL, United States

Bryan L.J.,Northwestern University | Gordon L.I.,Robert rie Comprehensive Cancer Center
Blood Reviews | Year: 2015

Immunotherapy remains an important tool for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway has emerged as a mechanism of tumor evasion from the anti-tumor immune response. The recent development of anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies has offered a targeted approach to cancer therapy. Several agents are in various stages of development and have shown clinical responses across a broad spectrum of both solid and hematologic malignancies. The use of anti-PD-1 therapy in hematologic malignancies is limited but has demonstrated clinical responses in relapsed/refractory disease following multiple lines of therapy. PD-1 blockade may reduce relapse rates for patients who fail to obtain a complete remission prior to autologous hematopoietic cell transplant. The role of the PD-1 pathway for tumor escape is reviewed. We explore the use of anti-PD-1 therapy in hematologic malignancies. The proposed mechanism of PD-1 blockade as a modulator of the innate and acquired immune response is considered. Finally, the challenges of anti-PD-1 therapy and the future direction of investigation in this area are reviewed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Savaryn J.P.,Chemistry of Life Processes Institute | Catherman A.D.,Chemistry of Life Processes Institute | Thomas P.M.,Chemistry of Life Processes Institute | Abecassis M.M.,Comprehensive Transplant Center | And 2 more authors.
Genome Medicine | Year: 2013

Proteomic technology has advanced steadily since the development of 'soft-ionization' techniques for mass-spectrometry-based molecular identification more than two decades ago. Now, the large-scale analysis of proteins (proteomics) is a mainstay of biological research and clinical translation, with researchers seeking molecular diagnostics, as well as protein-based markers for personalized medicine. Proteomic strategies using the protease trypsin (known as bottom-up proteomics) were the first to be developed and optimized and form the dominant approach at present. However, researchers are now beginning to understand the limitations of bottom-up techniques, namely the inability to characterize and quantify intact protein molecules from a complex mixture of digested peptides. To overcome these limitations, several laboratories are taking a whole-protein-based approach, in which intact protein molecules are the analytical targets for characterization and quantification. We discuss these top-down techniques and how they have been applied to clinical research and are likely to be applied in the near future. Given the recent improvements in mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and stronger cooperation between researchers, clinicians and statisticians, both peptide-based (bottom-up) strategies and whole-protein-based (top-down) strategies are set to complement each other and help researchers and clinicians better understand and detect complex disease phenotypes. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Kelleher N.L.,Northwestern University | Kelleher N.L.,Robert rie Comprehensive Cancer Center
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2012

The general scope of a project to determine the protein molecules that comprise the cells within the human body is framed. By focusing on protein primary structure as expressed in specific cell types, this concept for a cell-based version of the Human Proteome Project (CB-HPP) is crafted in a manner analogous to the Human Genome Project while recognizing that cells provide a primary context in which to define a proteome. Several activities flow from this articulation of the HPP, which enables the definition of clear milestones and deliverables. The CB-HPP highlights major gaps in our knowledge regarding cell heterogeneity and protein isoforms, and calls for development of technology that is capable of defining all human cell types and their proteomes. The main activities will involve mapping and sorting cell types combined with the application of beyond the state-of-the art in protein mass spectrometry. © The Author(s), 2012. Source


Stegh A.H.,Robert rie Comprehensive Cancer Center
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2012

Introduction: Research over the past three decades has identified p53 as a multi-functional transcription factor. p53 influences myriad, highly diverse cellular processes, and represents one of the most important and extensively studied tumor suppressors. Activated by various stresses, p53 blocks cancer progression by provoking transient or permanent growth arrest, by enabling DNA repair, or by advancing cellular death programs. This anti-cancer activity profile, together with genomic and mutational analyses documenting inactivation of p53 in more than 50% of human cancers, motivated drug development efforts to (re-) activate p53 in established tumors. Areas covered: The complexities of p53 signaling in cancer are summarized, including current strategies and challenges to restore p53's tumor suppressive function in established tumors, to inactivate p53 inhibitors, and to restore wild type function of p53 mutant proteins. Expert opinion: p53 represents an attractive target for the development of anti-cancer therapies. Whether p53 is 'druggable', however, remains an area of active research and discussion, as p53 has pro-survival functions and chronic p53 activation accelerates aging, which may compromise the long-term homeostasis of an organism. The complex biology and dual functions of p53 in cancer prevention and age-related cellular responses pose significant challenges to the development of p53-targeting cancer therapies. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Zhang X.-Q.,Northwestern University | Lam R.,Northwestern University | Xu X.,Northwestern University | Chow E.K.,University of California at San Francisco | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

Multimodal nanodiamonds (NDs) were prepared by attaching fluorescently labeled drug-oligonucleotide conjugates and monoclonal antibodies onto the ND surface. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide linkers enabled the intracellular observation and quantification of resultant ND conjugates. The covalent attachment of the chemotherapeutic and targeting moiety to the ND surface significantly enhanced cellular internalization and therapeutic activity © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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