Göttingen, Germany
Göttingen, Germany

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Schuster A.,Robert Koch Str. | Schuster A.,German Center for Cardiovascular Research | Schuster A.,Rayne Institute | Hor K.N.,Ohio State University | And 4 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2016

Heart failure-induced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality constitute a major health problem worldwide and result from diverse pathogeneses, including coronary artery disease, nonischemic cardiomyopathies, and arrhythmias. Assessment of cardiovascular performance is important for early diagnosis and accurate management of patients at risk of heart failure. During the past decade, cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking has emerged as a useful tool for the quantitative evaluation of cardiovascular function. The method allows quantification of biatrial and biventricular mechanics from measures of deformation: strain, torsion, and dyssynchrony. The purpose of this article is to review the basic principles, clinical applications, accuracy, and reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking, highlighting the prognostic implications. It will also provide an outlook on how this field might evolve in the future. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.


Zeisberg M.,Robert Koch Str. | Zeisberg M.,University of Gottingen | Tampe B.,Robert Koch Str. | Tampe B.,University of Gottingen | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is a multifunctional matricellular protein known to promote progression of chronic kidney disease. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms through which TSP1 accelerates chronic kidney disease, we compared disease progression in Col4a3 knockout (KO) mice, which develop spontaneous kidney failure, with that of Col4a3;Tsp1 double-knockout (DKO) mice. Decline of excretory renal function was significantly delayed in the absence of TSP1. Although Col4a3;Tsp1 DKO mice did progress toward end-stage renal failure, their kidneys exhibited distinct histopathological lesions, compared with creatinine levele matched Col4a3 KO mice. Although kidneys of both Col4a3 KO and Col4a3;Tsp1 DKO mice exhibited a widened tubulointerstitium, predominant lesions in Col4a3 KO kidneys were collagen deposition and fibroblast accumulation, whereas in Col4a3;Tsp1 DKO kidney inflammation was predominant, with less collagen deposition. Altered disease progression correlated with impaired activation of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) in vivo and in vitro in the absence of TSP1. In summary, our findings suggest that TSP1 contributes to progression of chronic kidney disease by catalyzing activation of latent TGF-b1, resulting in promotion of a fibroproliferative response over an inflammatory response. Furthermore, the findings suggest that fibroproliferative and inflammatory lesions are independent entities, both of which contribute to decline of renal function. ©2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology.


Sweiss N.J.,University of Chicago | Lower E.E.,University of Cincinnati | Korsten P.,Robert Koch Str. | Niewold T.B.,University of Chicago | And 2 more authors.
Current Rheumatology Reports | Year: 2011

Sarcoidosis affects the bone directly in only a minority of patients. Nonetheless, bone health should be considered in the management of all patients with sarcoidosis. Deficiency in vitamin D, an important contributor to bone health, has been linked to autoimmune disease incidence. Studies have shown that patients with sarcoidosis frequently have low levels of vitamin D-25 but may have normal or increased levels of vitamin D-1,25. In addition, granuloma formation has been linked to a failure of the innate immune system, which could be related to a deficiency in vitamin D, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Furthermore, many patients with sarcoidosis are treated with corticosteroids, which are known to induce osteoporosis. Therefore, bone health may be impacted in several ways in sarcoidosis-by direct involvement with granulomas, vitamin D deficiency, or corticosteroid therapy. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Liman J.,Robert Koch Str. | Deeg S.,Robert Koch Str. | Voigt A.,RWTH Aachen | Vossfeldt H.,RWTH Aachen | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2014

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is one of at least nine inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine tract within corresponding disease-specific proteins. In case of SCA3, mutation of Ataxin-3 results in aggregation of misfolded protein, formation of intranuclear as well as cytosolic inclusion bodies and cell death in distinct neuronal populations. Since cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on aggregate formation and cell death in various polyglutamine diseases, we tested its therapeutic potential for SCA3. Our data show increased caspase-dependent Ataxin-3 cleavage, aggregation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of sufficient CDK5 activity. This disease-propagating effect could be reversed by mutation of the caspase cleavage site in Ataxin-3. Moreover, reduction of CDK5 expression levels by RNAi in vivo enhances SCA3 toxicity as assayed in a Drosophila model for SCA3. In summary, we present CDK5 as a potent neuroprotectant, regulating cleavage and thereby toxicity of Ataxin-3 and other polyglutamine proteins. We propose that increased caspase-dependent cleavage of mutated Ataxin-3, because of missing CDK5 shielding, leads to aggregation and cell death. Moreover, reduction of CDK5 expression levels by RNAi in vivo enhances SCA3 toxicity as assayed in a Drosophila model for SCA3. We think that CDK5 functions as a shield against cleavage-induced toxification and thereby is an interesting target for therapeutic intervention in polyQ disease in general. We propose that increased caspase-dependent cleavage of mutated Ataxin-3, because of missing CDK5 shielding, leads to aggregation and cell death. Moreover, reduction of CDK5 expression levels by RNAi in vivo enhances SCA3 toxicity as assayed in a Drosophila model for SCA3. We think that CDK5 functions as a shield against cleavage-induced toxification and thereby is an interesting target for therapeutic intervention in polyQ disease in general. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

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