PubMed | National Veterinary Research Institute Pulawy, Copenhagen University, University of Ibadan, Institute Pasteur du Maroc and 10 more.
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in microbiology | Year: 2014
While the spread of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky resistant to ciprofloxacin across Africa and the Middle-East has been described recently, the presence of this strain in humans, food, various animal species (livestock, pets, and wildlife) and in environment is suspected in other countries of different continents. Here, we report results of an in-depth molecular epidemiological study on a global human and non-human collection of S. Kentucky (n = 70). We performed XbaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, assessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions, detected -lactam resistance mechanisms, and screened the presence of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). In this study, we highlight the rapid and extensive worldwide dissemination of the ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky ST198-X1-SGI1 strain since the mid-2000s in an increasingly large number of contaminated sources, including the environment. This strain has accumulated an increasing number of chromosomal and plasmid resistance determinants and has been identified in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Europe since 2010. The second substitution at position 87 in GyrA (replacing the amino acid Asp) appeared helpful for epidemiological studies to track the origin of contamination. This global study provides evidence leading to the conclusion that high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in S. Kentucky is a simple microbiological trait that facilitates the identification of the epidemic clone of interest, ST198-X1-SGI1. Taking this into account is essential in order to detect and monitor it easily and to take rapid measures in livestock to ensure control of this infection.
Hamed M.,Saarland University |
Nitsche-Schmitz D.P.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research |
Ruffing U.,Saarland University |
Steglich M.,Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode |
And 9 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2015
Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are frequently caused by predominant clusters of closely related isolates that cannot be discriminated by conventional diagnostic typing methods. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and DNA microarray (MA) now allow for better discrimination within a prevalent clonal complex (CC). This single center exploratory study aims to distinguish invasive (blood stream infection) and non-invasive (nasal colonization) MRSA isolates of the same CC5 into phylogenetic- and virulence-associated genotypic subgroups by WGS and MA. A cohort of twelve blood stream and fifteen nasal MRSA isolates of CC5 (. spa-types t003 and t504) was selected. Isolates were propagated at the same period of time from unrelated patients treated at the University of Saarland Medical Center, Germany.Rooted phylotyping based on WGS with core-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed two local clusters of closely related CC5 subgroups (. t504 and Clade1 t003) which were separated from other local t003 isolates and from unrelated CC5 MRSA reference isolates of German origin. Phylogenetic subtyping was not associated with invasiveness when comparing blood stream and nasal isolates.Clustering based on MA profiles was not concordant with WGS phylotyping, but MA profiles may identify subgroups of isolates with nasal and blood stream origin. Among the new putative virulence associated genes identified by WGS, the strongest association with blood stream infections was shown for ebhB mutants.Analysis of the core-genome together with the accessory genome enables subtyping of closely related MRSA isolates according to phylogeny and presumably also to the potential virulence capacity of isolates. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Leibniz Institute DSMZ, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Saarland University and Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2015
Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are frequently caused by predominant clusters of closely related isolates that cannot be discriminated by conventional diagnostic typing methods. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and DNA microarray (MA) now allow for better discrimination within a prevalent clonal complex (CC). This single center exploratory study aims to distinguish invasive (blood stream infection) and non-invasive (nasal colonization) MRSA isolates of the same CC5 into phylogenetic- and virulence-associated genotypic subgroups by WGS and MA. A cohort of twelve blood stream and fifteen nasal MRSA isolates of CC5 (spa-types t003 and t504) was selected. Isolates were propagated at the same period of time from unrelated patients treated at the University of Saarland Medical Center, Germany. Rooted phylotyping based on WGS with core-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed two local clusters of closely related CC5 subgroups (t504 and Clade1 t003) which were separated from other local t003 isolates and from unrelated CC5 MRSA reference isolates of German origin. Phylogenetic subtyping was not associated with invasiveness when comparing blood stream and nasal isolates. Clustering based on MA profiles was not concordant with WGS phylotyping, but MA profiles may identify subgroups of isolates with nasal and blood stream origin. Among the new putative virulence associated genes identified by WGS, the strongest association with blood stream infections was shown for ebhB mutants. Analysis of the core-genome together with the accessory genome enables subtyping of closely related MRSA isolates according to phylogeny and presumably also to the potential virulence capacity of isolates.
Andres D.,University of Potsdam |
Andres D.,Harvard University |
Gohlke U.,Max Delbruck Centrum fur Molekulare Medizin |
Broeker N.K.,University of Potsdam |
And 6 more authors.
Glycobiology | Year: 2013
Bacteriophage P22 recognizes O-antigen polysaccharides of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (S.) with its tailspike protein (TSP). In the serovars S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Paratyphi A, the tetrasaccharide repeat units of the respective O-antigens consist of an identical main chain trisaccharide but different 3,6-dideoxyhexose substituents. Here, the epimers abequose, tyvelose and paratose determine the specific serotype. P22 TSP recognizes O-antigen octasaccharides in an extended binding site with a single 3,6-dideoxyhexose binding pocket. We have isolated S. Paratyphi A octasaccharides which were not available previously and determined the crystal structure of their complex with P22 TSP. We discuss our data together with crystal structures of complexes with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis octasaccharides determined earlier. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that S. Paratyphi A octasaccharide binds P22 TSP less tightly, with a difference in binding free energy of ∼7 kJ mol-1 at 20°C compared with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis octasaccharides. Individual protein-carbohydrate contacts were probed by amino acid replacements showing that the dideoxyhexose pocket contributes to binding of all three serotypes. However, S. Paratyphi A octasaccharides bind in a conformation with an energetically unfavorable φ/ψ glycosidic bond angle combination. In contrast, octasaccharides from the other serotypes bind as solution-like conformers. Two water molecules are conserved in all P22 TSP complexes with octasaccharides of different serotypes. They line the dideoxyhexose binding pocket and force the S. Paratyphi A octasaccharides to bind as nonsolution conformers. This emphasizes the role of solvent as part of carbohydrate binding sites. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
PubMed | University of Greifswald and Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in microbiology | Year: 2015
Invasion of the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes into human host cells requires specialized surface molecules for attachment and induction of phagocytosis. However, efficient invasion is also dependent on factors with house-keeping functions, such as SecA2-dependent secretion of autolysins for post-divisional segregation of daughter cells. Mutations in this pathway prevent degradation of peptidoglycan cross-walls, so that long cell chains are formed that cannot be phagocytosed. The extreme chaining of such mutants manifests as rough colony phenotype. One rough clone was isolated from a transposon library with a transposon insertion in the uncharacterized lmo0720 gene (lftS) together with a spontaneous point mutation in the secA2 gene. We separated both mutations and demonstrated that this point mutation in the intramolecular regulator 2 domain of SecA2 was sufficient to inactivate the protein. In contrast, lftS deletion did not cause a secA2-like phenotype. lftS is located in an operon with lftR (lmo0719), encoding a PadR-like transcriptional regulator, and lftR deletion affected growth, invasion and day-light dependent coordination of swarming. Inactivation of lftS partially suppressed these phenotypes, suggesting a functional relationship between LftR and LftS. However, the invasion defect of the lftR mutant was only marginally suppressed by lftS removal. LftR regulates expression of the lmo0979-0980 (lieAB) operon, encoding a putative multidrug resistance transporter and lieAB transcription was strongly upregulated in the absence of LftR. Deletion of lieAB in the lftR background restores wild type-like invasion levels. Hence, we conclude that tight transcriptional repression of the lieAB operon is essential for efficient listerial host cell invasion.
Wirtz C.,University of Tübingen |
Witte W.,Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode |
Wolz C.,University of Tübingen |
Goerke C.,University of Tübingen
Virology | Year: 2010
Temperate bacteriophages play a critical role in the pathogenicity of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus by mediating positive lysogenic conversion for different virulence factors such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) or by interrupting chromosomal virulence genes. PVL-encoding phages are integrated in the S. aureus genome within a conserved ORF which is surrounded by a cluster of tandemly repeated genes. Here we demonstrate that in S. aureus clonal complex ST80 strains PVL-phage induction led to the acquisition of host DNA into the phage genome probably due to a homologous recombination event between direct repeats of the two paralogous genes adjacent to the phage integration site. Phage excision was accompanied by an additional chromosomal deletion in this region. This so far unrecognized mechanism of DNA uptake into the phage genome may play an important role in the co-evolution of phages and bacteria. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Mietke H.,Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fur Umwelt und Landwirtschaft |
Beer W.,Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode |
Schleif J.,Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fur Umwelt und Landwirtschaft |
Schabert G.,Biosynth AG |
Reissbrodt R.,Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010
Animal feed often contains probiotic Bacillus strains used as feed additives. Spores of the non-pathogenic B. cereus var. toyoi (product name Toyocerin®) are used. Distinguishing between toxic wild-type Bacillus cereus strains and this probiotic strain is essential for evaluating the quality and risk of feed. Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 (product name Paciflor®) was used as probiotic strain until 2001. The properties of the two probiotic strains are quite similar.Differentiating between probiotic strains and wild-type B. cereus strains is not easy. ß-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cefamandole exhibit an inhibition zone in the agar diffusion test of probiotic B. cereus strains which are not seen for wild-type strains. Therefore, performing the agar diffusion test first may make sense before FT-IR testing.When randomly checking these strains by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the probiotic B. cereus strains were separated from wild-type B. cereus/B. thuringiensis/B. mycoides/B. weihenstephanensis strains by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The discriminatory information was contained in the spectral windows 3000-2800cm-1 ("fatty acid region"), 1200-900cm-1 ("carbohydrate region") and 900-700cm-1 ("fingerprint region"). It is concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid quality control and risk analysis of animal feed containing probiotic B. cereus strains. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Antimicrobial resistance and infection control | Year: 2013
Vancomycin-resistant isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are of special concern and patients at risk of acquiring a VRE colonization/infection include also intensively-cared neonates. We describe here an ongoing high prevalence of VanB type E. faecium in a neonatal ICU hardly to identify by routine diagnostics.During a 10months key period 71 E. faecium isolates including 67 vanB-type isolates from 61 patients were collected non-selectively. Vancomycin resistance was determined by different MIC methods (broth microdilution, Vitek 2) including two Etest protocols (McFarland 0.5/2.0. on Mueller-Hinton/Brain Heart Infusion agars). Performance of three chromogenic VRE agars to identify the vanB type outbreak VRE was evaluated (BrillianceTM VRE agar, chromIDTM VRE agar, CHROMagarTM VRE). Isolates were genotyped by SmaI- and CeuI-macrorestriction analysis in PFGE, plasmid profiling, vanB Southern hybridisations as well as MLST typing.Majority of vanB isolates (n=56, 79%) belonged to a single ST192 outbreak strain type showing an identical PFGE pattern and analyzed representative isolates revealed a chromosomal localization of a vanB2-Tn5382 cluster type. Vancomycin MICs in cation-adjusted MH broth revealed a susceptible value of 4mg/L for 31 (55%) of the 56 outbreak VRE isolates. Etest vancomycin on MH and BHI agars revealed only two vanB VRE isolates with a susceptible result; in general Etest MIC results were about 1 to 2 doubling dilutions higher than MICs assessed in broth and values after the 48h readout were 0.5 to 1 doubling dilutions higher for vanB VRE. Of all vanB type VRE only three, three and two isolates did not grow on BrillianceTM VRE agar, chromIDTM VRE agar and CHROMagarTM VRE, respectively. Permanent cross contamination via the patients surrounding appeared as a possible risk factor for permanent VRE colonization/infection.Low level expression of vanB resistance may complicate a proper routine diagnostics of vanB VRE and mask an ongoing high VRE prevalence. A high inoculum and growth on rich solid media showed the highest sensitivity in identifying vanB type resistance.
PubMed | Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology | Year: 2014
Before the advent of molecular biology methods, studies of pathogens were dominated by analyses of their metabolism. Development of molecular biology techniques then enabled the identification and functional characterisation of the fascinating toolbox of virulence factors. Increasing, genomic and proteomic approaches form the basis for a more systemic view on pathogens functions in the context of infection. Re-emerging interest in the metabolism of pathogens and hosts further expands our view of infections. There is increasing evidence that virulence functions and metabolism of pathogens are extremely intertwined. Type three secretion systems (T3SSs) are major virulence determinants of many Gram-negative pathogens and it is the objective of this review to illustrate the intertwined relationship between T3SSs and the metabolism of the pathogens deploying them.