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Faroug R.,Royal Infirmary | Amanat S.,Royal Infirmary | Ockendon M.,Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital | Shah S.V.,Royal Infirmary | And 2 more authors.

There are many negative health consequences associated with alcohol dependency. Fractures of the proximal femur carry significant morbidity and mortality. This study examines the outcomes in patients with alcohol dependency, who sustain a fracture of the proximal femur. Twenty-eight consecutive alcohol dependent patients who suffered a fracture of the proximal femur were identified over a three year period. Data were collected on demographics, co-morbidity, surgical factors, mobility and mortality. The median age of patients was 61 years. The median weekly alcohol intake was 158 units. Thirteen patients sustained an extra-capsular fracture and 15 an intra-capsular proximal femoral fracture. Twenty-two fractures were treated with internal fixation and six with arthroplasty. The overall mortality rate was 29% at a median of 15 months post fracture. The failure rate of intra-capsular fractures fixed with cannulated screws was 56% at a median time of 43 days. All patients had a reduction in mobility compared to their pre-operative function. The reduction in mobility was greatest in patients with intra-capsular fractures treated with cannulated screw fixation. Alcohol dependent patients sustaining a fracture of the proximal femur are significantly younger than non-alcohol dependent patients sustaining the same injury. Despite the younger age at presentation the one year mortality rate of this group was high (29%). The high rate of complications with fracture fixation and high one year mortality suggest that hemiarthroplasty may be the best treatment option for intra-capsular fractures in this patient group. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ockendon M.,Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital
The journal of knee surgery

Loss of full knee extension following anterior cruciate ligament surgery has been shown to impair knee function. However, there can be significant difficulties in accurately and reproducibly measuring a fixed flexion of the knee. We studied the interobserver and the intraobserver reliabilities of a novel, smartphone accelerometer-based, knee goniometer and compared it with a long-armed conventional goniometer for the assessment of fixed flexion knee deformity. Five healthy male volunteers (age range 30 to 40 years) were studied. Measurements of knee flexion angle were made with a telescopic-armed goniometer (Lafayette Instrument, Lafayette, IN) and compared with measurements using the smartphone (iPhone 3GS, Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) knee goniometer using a novel trigonometric technique based on tibial inclination. Bland-Altman analysis of validity and reliability including statistical analysis of correlation by Pearson's method was undertaken. The iPhone goniometer had an interobserver correlation (r) of 0.994 compared with 0.952 for the Lafayette. The intraobserver correlation was r = 0.982 for the iPhone (compared with 0.927). The datasets from the two instruments correlate closely (r = 0.947) are proportional and have mean difference of only -0.4 degrees (SD 3.86 degrees). The Lafayette goniometer had an intraobserver reliability +/- 9.6 degrees. The interobserver reliability was +/- 8.4 degrees. By comparison the iPhone had an interobserver reliability +/- 2.7 degrees and an intraobserver reliability +/- 4.6 degrees. We found the iPhone goniometer to be a reliable tool for the measurement of subtle knee flexion in the clinic setting. Source

Whittaker J.-P.,Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital | Naudie D.D.R.,London Health Sciences Center | McAuley J.P.,London Health Sciences Center | McCalden R.W.,London Health Sciences Center | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

Medial unicompartmental arthroplasties (UKA) are available with mobile- and fixed-bearing designs, with the advantages of one bearing over another unproven. We questioned whether the bearing design influenced clinical outcome, survivorship, the reason for revision, or the timing of failures. We retrospectively reviewed 179 patients (229 knees) who had medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasties between 1990 and 2007; of these 79 knees had a mobile-bearing design and 150 knees a fixed-bearing design. Patients with mobile-bearing UKA had a minimum followup of 1 year (mean, 3.6 years; range, 1-11.3 years); those with fixed-bearing UKA a minimum followup of 1 year (mean, 8.1 years; range, 1-17.8 years). Patients were evaluated with clinical outcome scores and radiographically using the Knee Society rating system. Seven of 79 (9%) mobile-bearing knees underwent revision at a mean of 2.6 years, and 22 of 150 (15%) fixed-bearing knees underwent revision at a mean of 6.9 years. The 5-year cumulative survival rates were 88% (SE ± 0.47, 95% CI 0.7229-1) and 96% (SE ± 0.16, 95% CI 0.93-0.9979) for the mobile- and fixed-bearing designs respectively using the endpoint of revision surgery. We observed no differences in the indications or complexity of revision surgery between the groups and none in midterm survivorship. Level of Evidence: Level III, comparative study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2009 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®. Source

Tins B.J.,Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital | Butler R.,Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital
Insights into Imaging

Imaging in rheumatology was in the past largely confined to radiographs of the hands and sacroiliac joints (SIJs) helping to establish the diagnosis and then monitoring disease progression. Radiographs are not very sensitive for early inflammation in inflammatory rheumatic disorders and the demand on imaging services was therefore limited. However, over the last 10-15 years new drugs and new technologies have brought new challenges and opportunities to rheumatology and radiology as specialties. New drug treatments allow more effective treatment, preventing many complications. Early diagnosis and disease monitoring has become the challenge for the rheumatologist and radiologist alike. The best possible patient outcome is only achieved if the two specialties understand each other's viewpoint. This article reviews the role of imaging-in particular radiography, magnet resonance imaging, computer tomography, ultrasound and nuclear medicine-for the diagnosis and monitoring of rheumatological disorders, concentrating on rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory spondylarthropathies and gout. Teaching Points • New drugs for the treatment of inflammatory disorders has led to greatly improved outcomes. • Imaging often allows for earlier diagnosis of inflammatory disorders. • Early diagnosis and treatment can often prevent the development of crippling disease manifestations. • Tailored imaging examinations are best achieved by consultation of rheumatologist and radiologist. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Carrothers A.D.,Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital | Gilbert R.E.,Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital | Richardson J.B.,Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital
HIP International

There is no published literature to support mid to long term results of hip resurfacing (HR) arthroplasty in patients over the age of 70 years. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the function HR in this age group (70 or older at the time of surgery) at medium to long term follow-up. Between July 1997 and November 2002, the Oswestry Outcome Centre independently and prospectively collected data on 5000 Birmingham Hip Resurfacings (BHRs). 106 had been implanted in elderly patients who were 70 years of age or older. The post-operative Harris and Merle D'Aubigné and Postel (MDP) hip scores and causes for revision were used to ascertain function and implant survival. Hip scores for the older BHR patients were compared with those from younger patients. The average age at surgery of the elderly BHR cohort was 73.2 years (range, 70.0 to 87.9 years) with a mean follow-up of 7.1 years (range, 0.5 to 10.9 years). Four patients had a femoral neck fracture and required conversion to a conventional total hip replacement. There were no patients lost to follow-up and no dislocations in this series. The median Harris hip score (HHS) was significantly better in the younger BHR group compared with the elderly BHR group, (96 vs. 94 p=0.008). There was no significant difference in recovery rates after surgery. There was a significantly higher rate of revision in women than men among the elderly patients (male= 1 of 65 (1.5%); women = 3 of 19 (15.8%), p=0.03). At latest follow-up the elderly patients continued to function well when compared with the younger BHR patients. There was a high mid to long term success rate after HR in patients who were 70 years of age or older, without the failure burden possibly anticipated. Elderly patients had a poorer functional outcome, but a difference in HHS of two points may be of only minor clinical significance. © 2011 Wichtig Editore. Source

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