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Yut I.,University of Connecticut | Zofka A.,Road and Bridge Research Institute
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

This study explores correlation between chemical and rheological changes in polymer-modified asphalts (PMA) aged in laboratory. Viscosity measurements were conducted in Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), whereas the changes in asphalt chemical composition due to aging were elucidated from their Fourier transform infrared spectra obtained in Attenuate Total Reflection (ATR) mode. The analysis of variance in DSR and ATR measurements revealed that severity of aging procedure affected PMA viscosity greater than polymer composition and concentration did. Furthermore, it was possible to predict dynamic shear modulus of PMA at a given temperature and aging test severity from relative content of chemical functional groups identified from ATR spectrum. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kania H.,Silesian University of Technology | Komorowski L.,Road and Bridge Research Institute
Solid State Phenomena | Year: 2016

In the paper the results of tests defining the influence of the chemical composition of a zinc bath on the corrosion resistance of coatings obtained on Sebisty steel are presented. The coatings for the tests were produced on Sebisty steel with the content of silicon of 0.18 wt. % in Zn-AlNi, Zn-AlNiPb and Zn-AlNiBiSn baths. Corrosion resistance of coatings obtained in alloy baths was compared with the corrosion resistance of a coating obtained in a bath of pure Zn. The structure of coatings has been developed, the chemical composition of structural components of the coating and the coating thickness have be established. Corrosion resistance of the coatings was defined by comparative methods in a standard corrosion test in neutral salt spray. The tests were carried out in accordance with the EN ISO 9227 standard. It has been established that alloy additions to a zinc bath have impact upon corrosion resistance of obtained coatings. The addition of Pb results in a decrease in corrosion resistance of a coating obtained on Sebisty steel. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications.


Sudyka J.,Road and Bridge Research Institute | Krysinski L.,University of Warsaw
International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology | Year: 2011

The paper discusses opportunities for evaluation of the asphalt pavement interlayer bonding quality with the use of GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) techniques. The laboratory measurements were performed using a single 2 GHz, air-coupled, impulse antenna (in the simple reflection configuration) for the collection of synthetic samples representing idealized models of horizontal delamination. The measurements provided estimations of the antenna resolution in detecting cracks under dry and wet conditions. This analysis of the "ouble reflection" being a distinguishing feature of delamination allowed to formulate an important conclusion as to the critical limitations of the measuring system and as to the adequate methods of signal processing and interpretation. The field investigations consisted of GPR measurements (using the same antenna) along selected road sections and collecting drilling cores at locations associated with strong double reflections. The preliminary inspection of the drilling cores provided some insight as to the what laminas causing the double reflections are in real world road surfaces. They are not necessarily thin horizontal cracks but frequently they are a few centimeters thick deterioration zones associated with weathering (mineral changes and erosion of the aggregates, stripping the asphalt matrix off). © Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering.


Olaszek P.,Road and Bridge Research Institute
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life Extension - Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, IABMAS 2014 | Year: 2014

Continuous multipoint deflection measurements (with sampling frequency of at least several times per minute) are difficult or practically impossible to be made in case of bridges with no possibility of equipment assembly under the examined spans (bridges under river, railway line or roads with heavy traffic). Identification of this need has led to the development of a new measurement system the main element of which is a network of inclinometers. Cubic spline curves which enhance the accuracy of the results are used in the calculation of deflection lines. The designed system may be applied not only in monitoring of bridges during static load testing (short monitoring time: from a few to a dozen hours) but also in long term monitoring during bridge service. Apart from the above aspects the paper also presents some example of system implementations. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group.


Kraszewski C.,Road and Bridge Research Institute | Rafalski L.,Road and Bridge Research Institute
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2016

In order to ensure the bearing capacity and durability of road pavement in cold climate areas, it is necessary use materials which are resistant to harmful frost impact, known as frost-heaving. Frost heave cause adverse volume changes, the upwards swelling of the pavement after freezing and deterioration of the bearing capacity of the structure after thawing. In winter, road carriageway temperatures may reach tmin = -30°C under Polish conditions, which results in the freezing of the structural pavement and subgrade layers. Due to frost penetration into the pavement and the subgrade, heaves may form in soils and in structural layers (unbound mixtures), and during the thaw period a high level of moisture is maintained in the frozen layers, and therefore the structure has a low bearing capacity. The aim of this research was to evaluate frost susceptibility of aggregates mixtures based on content of fine-grain fractions and plasticity index IP. Potential frost susceptibility of road materials and soils is determined by laboratory testing. Frost susceptibility is connected directly with the content and quality of fines, which is why the basic test is that material grading. The criterion based on fines content is the most frequently used indicator in determining frost susceptibility for soils. The article shows whether the limit values adopted for this criterion are also applicable to aggregates. The results of frost-heaving properties are presented of 14 typical natural aggregate road mixtures, continuously graded 0/31.5 mm. Frost susceptibility was determined based on laboratory testing of the following features: content of fine-grain fractions, smaller than 0.002 mm, 0.02 mm, 0.075 mm, 0.125 mm, plasticity index IP and the value of the actual frost-heave of a compacted aggregate mixture frozen in a cylinder. The article shows the test results and their analyses according to the frost susceptibility evaluation criteria for unbound mixtures in road construction. The tests presented in the article were carried out at the Road and Bridge Research Institute in Warsaw. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Olaszek P.,Road and Bridge Research Institute
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management, Resilience and Sustainability - Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management | Year: 2012

The presented system is intended to monitor bridges in two cycles of their operation: construction and service. It consists of independent recorders which register strain/stress, acceleration and temperature. The recorders operate in tandem with a portable outside computer only in phases of preparation, testing and saving measurements. They are characterised by high reliability of measurement achieved due to a duplication method of strain/stress measurement and a reasonably low price. The paper presents some examples of system trial implementations. The first instance concerns monitoring of structure creation, from system installation in steel structure factory through transport of particular elements, assembly of structure on a construction site and concreting of a deck to a disassembly of shuttering. The second example focuses on the monitoring of a bridge construction via the process of launching steel girders with a composite reinforced concrete deck slab and during bridge load testing and service. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group.


Krysinski L.,Road and Bridge Research Institute | Sudyka J.,Road and Bridge Research Institute
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2013

This paper describes the results of an investigation into the capabilities of the GPR technique within the field of pavement crack diagnostics. Initially, laboratory tests were performed on prototypes simulating idealized cracks. Next, long-term visual observation and repeated GPR scanning were performed, on three roads of semi-rigid construction, several hundreds of meters long and subjected to heavy traffic. Furthermore, a road of rigid construction was tested, having a more than 70-year history of use. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings, in order to recognize structures responsible for signal generation, or to explain reasons of signal lacking. The main result of this work is a list of GPR indications of cracks, which can be noticed on echograms. It was created through a correlation of the visually-observed cracks with the corresponding echograms, with decimeter accuracy. Several types of GPR responses were classified and linked to possible categories of crack structures, or to processes associated with the presence of cracks (as crumbling, erosion, and lithological alterations). The poor visibility of cracks was also studied, due to small crack size, or to the blurred character of the damaged area, or else to masking effects related to coarse grains in the asphalt mixture. The efficiency of the proposed method for the identification and localization of cracks is higher when a long-term GPR observation is performed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Rafalski L.,Road and Bridge Research Institute | Cwiakala M.,Road and Bridge Research Institute
Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering | Year: 2014

Certain soils encountered in practice are difficult or impossible to use for road building. To improve their mechanical properties, various methods of soil stabilization are applied. A widely used means of soil stabilization is the addition of hydraulic binders. In the methodology of designing of soil-binder mixtures it is important to determine how, based on variable parameters characterizing a sample of soil, to predict the grade of the binder and the quantity in which it is to be added to the soil in order for defined requirements to be met. This work describes an application of statistical logit model in designing soil-binder mixtures intended to be used for road foundations, subject to defined requirements as to their strength and frost resistance. © 2014 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika.


Malasek J.,Road and Bridge Research Institute
Cybernetics and Information Technologies | Year: 2015

The Smart Travel Planner concept for an optimal travel choice, supported by a Personalized Internet Portal, has to promote the sustainable urban mobility. STP is an important tool for Sustainable Urban Transport Decalogue's implementation that is intended to result in lower emissions, better health and lower investment costs in the road infrastructure. The questionnaires included are for checking its public acceptance in the city and at end users' level.


Malasek J.,Road and Bridge Research Institute
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2011

Coordination of spatial and transport planning policy for modern land management in Warsaw follows the guidelines prepared in three main city documents: "Development strategy for the city of Warsaw until 2020", "The study of Warsaw spatial development conditions and directions of development" and "The strategy for sustainable development of Warsaw transport system by 2015 and subsequent years". It helps to make public transport modes more attractive for passengers and to achieve the wide public acceptance for car traffic restrictions. Sustainable urban planning is a chance for improvement, or at least not worsening, living standards in metropolis, where streets over packed by cars make cities less attractive not only for inhabitants, but also for visitors and investors. The most important achievement of Polish urban planning practice is that all documents shaping conditions for Warsaw's sustainable development are well correlated. The development strategy formed the general guidelines which were implemented in Warsaw's spatial policy. Transportation policy, the city document prepared as the last one, forms main objectives following the spatial policy guidelines. This Warsaw experience could be followed by other Central European cities implementing modern land management for urban dynamics. Warsaw, the capital city of Poland, shares its experience in sustainable urban planning, taking part in the European project GUTS (Green Urban Transport Systems) for improvement in quality of life factors. © 2012 WIT Press.

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