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Jakar, Bhutan

Wangdi J.,MoAF | Zangmo T.,RLDC | Karma,RNR RDC | Mindu,RNR RDC | Bhujel P.,RNR RDC
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

The study was undertaken to document baseline information on the compositional quality of cow’s milk and its seasonal variations in Bhutan. Majority of milk are produced by the rural farmers rearing different dairy breeds –Jersey, Brown Swiss, Mithun, Nublang, Holstein Friesian and their crossbreds. There was a significant differences (p<0.05) in the milk compositions among the different dairy breeds and their crossbreds. Likewise, a significant differences was also observed in milk composition between different seasons. Most milk components were found higher for improved cattle breeds reared in Bhutan than those reared in other countries. Milk produced in Bhutan is rich in fat, SNF and lactose. The study recorded overall mean milk composition of 4.99 % fat, 8.59 % SNF, density of 1.028 kg/liter, freezing point of -0.571 ºC, 3.25 % protein, 5.48 % lactose and 0.67% other solids. The mean fat and protein percentages recorded were 4.74 & 3.08; 4.99 & 3.23; 5.67 & 3.65; 5.15 & 3.02; 5.53 & 3.67; 5.08 & 3.15 and 5.07 and 2.98, for BSx, Jx, Mx, LC, PJ, Nublang and HFx, respectively. The mean % lactose content was found exceptionally high in milk produced in Bhutan. However, the protein to fat ratio was observed comparatively low indicating sign of protein depression in cow’s milk produced in Bhutan. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All right reserved. Source


Wangdi J.,RNR RDC | Mindu,RNR RDC | Bhujel P.,RNR RDC | Karma,RNR RDC | Wangchuk S.,RNR RDC
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

The mean daily milk yields reported by the respondents for once milking for the summer and winter months were 1.54 Kg, 4.23 Kg, 1.62 Kg, 5.07 Kg, 3.49 Kg and 1.08 Kg, 3.03 Kg, 1.08 Kg, 3.58 Kg and 2.07 Kg for the LC, Jx, Mx, PJ and BSx, respectively. The mean daily milk yield reported for twice milking (morning plus evening) for the summer and winter months were 2.04 Kg, 6.15 Kg, 2.08 Kg, 7.10 Kg, 5.08 Kg and 1.41 Kg, 4.49 Kg, 1.48 Kg, 4.61 Kg and 3.08 Kg for the LC, Jx, Mx, PJ and BSx respectively. The mean daily milk yield smeasured in the summer months were 1.43 Kg, 3.74 Kg, 1.48 Kg, 4.80 Kg and 3.60 Kg (once milking) and 1.86 Kg, 5.52 Kg, 2.10 Kg, 6.21 Kg and 5.90 Kg (twice milking) for the LC, Jx, Mx, PJ and BSx, respectively. The total daily milk yield increased by about 30 %, if animals were milked twice in a day. There was no differences on corroborating survey findings with the actual measurement of daily milk yield, indicating reliability of the survey findings. In general, the productive and reproductive performance of dairy breeds and their crossbred in Bhutan were relatively poor. The enhancement of farmers’ skills and knowledge through education on improved cattle management practices, importance of complete milking and adopting twice milking of animals in a day could contribute to economic viability and sustainability of dairy farms in the country.The study was conducted to establish baseline information pertaining to productive and reproductive performance of dairy breeds and their crossbred in Bhutan. The data from 1340 animals reared by 782 farmers from 14 districts were collected through interview using a structured questionnaire. To corroborate the survey findings on the daily milk yield, actual daily milk yield of 733 animals were also measured using a spring weighing balance with 10g precision. The respondents were composed of members and non-members of the dairy farmers’ groups and the cattle migratory herders. The overall mean lactation record, age at first services, gestation period, heat interval, services per conception, calving interval and days open for the dairy breeds and their crossbred in Bhutan were 303 (SE=2.4) days, 25.3 (SE=0.16) months, 279 (SE=0.31) days, 21.0 days (SE=0.04), 1.33 nos. (SE=0.02), 488 days (SE=2.7) and 149 days (SE=2.58), respectively. The data were registered from a population, at various stages of lactation, lactation number, age and locations covering different agro-ecological zones. © 2014, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved. Source

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