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Bunkyō-ku, Japan

Hirose M.,University of Tsukuba | Yamato K.,University of Tsukuba | Endo S.,University of Tsukuba | Saito R.,University of Tsukuba | And 6 more authors.
Oncoscience | Year: 2014

MDM2 and MDM4, a structurally related MDM2 homolog, negatively regulates expression and functions of TP53 tumor suppressor gene. To explore the precise expression patterns and function of MDM2 and MDM4 in wild-type (wt) TP53 cancer cells, we analyzed 11 various cancer cell lines with wt TP53. All cell lines exhibited deregulated expression of MDM2 and MDM4, and were divided into two distinct types; the one expressing high levels of MDM4 and another expressing low levels of MDM4. The low MDM4 type expressed higher MDM2 levels than the high MDM4 type. In cells with high MDM4 expression, knockdown of MDM4 or MDM2 reactivated TP53, and simultaneous knockdown of MDM2 and MDM4 synergistically reactivated TP53. In contrast, in cells with low MDM4 expression, knockdown of only MDM2 reactivated TP53. These results suggest that both MDM2 and MDM4 are closely involved in TP53 inactivation in cancer cells with high MDM4 expression, whereas only MDM2, and not MDM4, is a regulator of TP53 in cells with low MDM4 expression. MDM4 expression in wt TP53-tumors is a potential indicator for TP53 reactivation cancer therapy by simultaneous targeting of MDM4 and MDM2. Specific knockdown of MDM2 and MDM4 might be applicable for TP53 restoration therapy. Source


Kamatuka K.,Tokyo University of Technology | Hattori M.,RNAi Company Ltd | Sugiyama T.,Tokyo University of Technology
Eurasip Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology | Year: 2016

RNA interference (RNAi) screening is extensively used in the field of reverse genetics. RNAi libraries constructed using random oligonucleotides have made this technology affordable. However, the new methodology requires exploration of the RNAi target gene information after screening because the RNAi library includes non-natural sequences that are not found in genes. Here, we developed a web-based tool to support RNAi screening. The system performs short hairpin RNA (shRNA) target prediction that is informed by comprehensive enquiry (SPICE). SPICE automates several tasks that are laborious but indispensable to evaluate the shRNAs obtained by RNAi screening. SPICE has four main functions: (i) sequence identification of shRNA in the input sequence (the sequence might be obtained by sequencing clones in the RNAi library), (ii) searching the target genes in the database, (iii) demonstrating biological information obtained from the database, and (iv) preparation of search result files that can be utilized in a local personal computer (PC). Using this system, we demonstrated that genes targeted by random oligonucleotide-derived shRNAs were not different from those targeted by organism-specific shRNA. The system facilitates RNAi screening, which requires sequence analysis after screening. The SPICE web application is available at http://www.spice.sugysun.org/. © 2016, Kamatuka et al. Source


Iwasaki W.,University of Tokyo | Fukunaga T.,University of Tokyo | Isagozawa R.,University of Tokyo | Yamada K.,RNAi Company Ltd | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Mitofish is a database of fish mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) that includes powerful and precise de novo annotations for mitogenome sequences. Fish occupy an important position in the evolution of vertebrates and the ecology of the hydrosphere, and mitogenomic sequence data have served as a rich source of information for resolving fish phylogenies and identifying new fish species. The importance of a mitogenomic database continues to grow at a rapid pace as massive amounts of mitogenomic data are generated with the advent of new sequencing technologies. A severe bottleneck seems likely to occur with regard to mitogenome annotation because of the overwhelming pace of data accumulation and the intrinsic difficulties in annotating sequences with degenerating transfer RNA structures, divergent start/stop codons of the coding elements, and the overlapping of adjacent elements. To ease this data backlog, we developed an annotation pipeline named MitoAnnotator. MitoAnnotator automatically annotates a fish mitogenome with a high degree of accuracy in approximately 5 min; thus, it is readily applicable to data sets of dozens of sequences. MitoFish also contains re-annotations of previously sequenced fish mitogenomes, enabling researchers to refer to them when they find annotations that are likely to be erroneous or while conducting comparative mitogenomic analyses. For users who need more information on the taxonomy, habitats, phenotypes, or life cycles of fish, MitoFish provides links to related databases. MitoFish and MitoAnnotator are freely available at http://mitofish.aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ (last accessed August 28, 2013); all of the data can be batch downloaded, and the annotation pipeline can be used via a web interface. © The Author 2013. Source


A double-stranded nucleic acid molecule including (a) a sense strand which includes a nucleotide sequence corresponding to a target sequence indicated by any one of SEQ ID Nos.: 1 to 21, and (b) an antisense strand which includes a nucleotide sequence complementary to that of the sense strand specified in (a), wherein the double-stranded nucleic acid molecule is for suppressing the expression of at least one of APP and EBAG9 genes.


A double-stranded nucleic acid molecule including (a) a sense strand which includes a nucleotide sequence corresponding to a target sequence indicated by any one of SEQ ID Nos.: 1 to 21, and (b) an antisense strand which includes a nucleotide sequence complementary to that of the sense strand specified in (a), wherein the double-stranded nucleic acid molecule is for suppressing the expression of at least one of APP and EBAG9 genes.

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