RNA Editing Laboratory

Rome, Italy

RNA Editing Laboratory

Rome, Italy
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Doria M.,Childrens Hospital Bambino Gesu | Tomaselli S.,RNA Editing Laboratory | Neri F.,Childrens Hospital Bambino Gesu | Ciafre S.A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 3 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2011

The adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes catalyse conversion of adenosine to inosine in dsRNA. A positive effect of ADAR1 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication has recently been reported. Here, we show that another ADAR enzyme, ADAR2, positively affects the replication process of HIV-1. We found that, analogously to ADAR1, ADAR2 enhances the release of progeny virions by an editing-dependent mechanism. However, differently from the ADAR1 enzyme, ADAR2 does not increase the infectious potential of the virus. Importantly, downregulation of ADAR2 in Jurkat cells significantly impairs viral replication. Therefore, ADAR2 shares some but not all proviral functions of ADAR1. These results suggest a novel role of ADAR2 as a viral regulator. © 2011 SGM Printed in Great Britain.


Picardi E.,University of Bari | Picardi E.,CNR Institute of Biomembrane and Bioenergetics | Gallo A.,RNA Editing Laboratory | Galeano F.,RNA Editing Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process occurring in a wide range of organisms. In human brain, the A-to-I RNA editing, in which individual adenosine (A) bases in pre-mRNA are modified to yield inosine (I), is the most frequent event. Modulating gene expression, RNA editing is essential for cellular homeostasis. Indeed, its deregulation has been linked to several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, many RNA editing sites have been identified by next generation sequencing technologies employing massive transcriptome sequencing together with whole genome or exome sequencing. While genome and transcriptome reads are not always available for single individuals, RNA-Seq data are widespread through public databases and represent a relevant source of yet unexplored RNA editing sites. In this context, we propose a simple computational strategy to identify genomic positions enriched in novel hypothetical RNA editing events by means of a new two-steps mapping procedure requiring only RNA-Seq data and no a priori knowledge of RNA editing characteristics and genomic reads. We assessed the suitability of our procedure by confirming A-to-I candidates using conventional Sanger sequencing and performing RNA-Seq as well as whole exome sequencing of human spinal cord tissue from a single individual. © 2012 Picardi et al.


Galeano F.,RNA Editing Laboratory | Tomaselli S.,RNA Editing Laboratory | Locatelli F.,RNA Editing Laboratory | Locatelli F.,University of Pavia | Gallo A.,RNA Editing Laboratory
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

Carcinogenesis is a complex, multi-stage process depending on both endogenous and exogenous factors. In the past years, DNA mutations provided important clues to the comprehension of the molecular pathways involved in numerous cancers. Recently, post-transcriptional modification events, such as RNA editing, are emerging as new players in several human diseases, including tumours. A-to-I RNA editing changes the nucleotide sequence of target RNAs, introducing A-to-I/G " mutations" Since ADAR enzymes catalyse this nucleotide conversion, their expression/activity is essential and finely regulated in normal cells.This review summarizes the available knowledge on A-to-I RNA editing in the cancer field, giving a new view on how ADARs may play a role in carcinogenesis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Gallo A.,RNA Editing Laboratory | Locatelli F.,RNA Editing Laboratory | Locatelli F.,University of Pavia
Biological Reviews | Year: 2012

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that convert adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in nuclear-encoded RNAs and viral RNAs. The activity of ADARs has been demonstrated to be essential in mammals and serves to fine-tune different proteins and modulate many molecular pathways. Recent findings have shown that ADAR activity is altered in many pathological tissues. Moreover, it has been shown that modulation of RNA editing is important for cell proliferation and migration, and has a protective effect on ischaemic insults. This review summarises available recent knowledge on A-to-I RNA editing and ADAR enzymes, with particular attention given to the emerging role played by these enzymes in cancer, some infectious diseases and immune-mediated disorders. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.


PubMed | RNA Editing Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Seminars in cell & developmental biology | Year: 2012

Carcinogenesis is a complex, multi-stage process depending on both endogenous and exogenous factors. In the past years, DNA mutations provided important clues to the comprehension of the molecular pathways involved in numerous cancers. Recently, post-transcriptional modification events, such as RNA editing, are emerging as new players in several human diseases, including tumours. A-to-I RNA editing changes the nucleotide sequence of target RNAs, introducing A-to-I/G mutations. Since ADAR enzymes catalyse this nucleotide conversion, their expression/activity is essential and finely regulated in normal cells. This review summarizes the available knowledge on A-to-I RNA editing in the cancer field, giving a new view on how ADARs may play a role in carcinogenesis.


PubMed | RNA Editing Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society | Year: 2012

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that convert adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in nuclear-encoded RNAs and viral RNAs. The activity of ADARs has been demonstrated to be essential in mammals and serves to fine-tune different proteins and modulate many molecular pathways. Recent findings have shown that ADAR activity is altered in many pathological tissues. Moreover, it has been shown that modulation of RNA editing is important for cell proliferation and migration, and has a protective effect on ischaemic insults. This review summarises available recent knowledge on A-to-I RNA editing and ADAR enzymes, with particular attention given to the emerging role played by these enzymes in cancer, some infectious diseases and immune-mediated disorders.

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