Sen K.,University of Delhi |
Mohan P.,RMS India |
Agarwal M.L.,Shiv Nadar University
Journal of Quality and Reliability Engineering | Year: 2013
We use the Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) to obtain probability generating functions of the waiting time distributions of 1st, and mth nonoverlapping and overlapping occurrences of the pattern Λfk 1,k2=SFFFk1≤kf≤k2S (k 1>0), involving homogenous Markov dependent trials. GERT besides providing visual picture of the system helps to analyze the system in a less inductive manner. Mean and variance of the waiting times of the occurrence of the patterns have also been obtained. Some earlier results existing in literature have been shown to be particular cases of these results. © 2013 Kanwar Sen et al.
Ranger N.,The London School of Economics and Political Science |
Ranger N.,Risk Management Solutions Ltd. |
Hallegatte S.,Risk Management Solutions Ltd. |
Hallegatte S.,Center International Of Recherche Sur Lenvironnement Et Le Developpement |
And 12 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2011
Managing risks from extreme events will be a crucial component of climate change adaptation. In this study, we demonstrate an approach to assess future risks and quantify the benefits of adaptation options at a city-scale, with application to flood risk in Mumbai. In 2005, Mumbai experienced unprecedented flooding, causing direct economic damages estimated at almost two billion USD and 500 fatalities. Our findings suggest that by the 2080s, in a SRES A2 scenario, an 'upper bound' climate scenario could see the likelihood of a 2005-like event more than double. We estimate that total losses (direct plus indirect) associated with a 1-in-100 year event could triple compared with current situation (to $690-$1,890 million USD), due to climate change alone. Continued rapid urbanisation could further increase the risk level. The analysis also demonstrates that adaptation could significantly reduce future losses; for example, estimates suggest that by improving the drainage system in Mumbai, losses associated with a 1-in-100 year flood event today could be reduced by as much as 70%.,We show that assessing the indirect costs of extreme events is an important component of an adaptation assessment, both in ensuring the analysis captures the full economic benefits of adaptation and also identifying options that can help to manage indirect risks of disasters. For example, we show that by extending insurance to 100% penetration, the indirect effects of flooding could be almost halved. We conclude that, while this study explores only the upper-bound climate scenario, the risk-assessment core demonstrated in this study could form an important quantitative tool in developing city-scale adaptation strategies. We provide a discussion of sources of uncertainty and risk-based tools could be linked with decision-making approaches to inform adaptation plans that are robust to climate change. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.