Melbourne, Australia
Melbourne, Australia

RMIT University is an Australian university of technology and design based in Melbourne, Victoria.RMIT was founded in 1887 by grazier, politician and public benefactor the Hon. Francis Ormond—as the Working Men's College of Melbourne. Its foundation campus is located in Melbourne City, and is a contiguous part of the northern area of the city centre.It opened as a night school for instruction in art, science and technology—to support the industrialisation of Melbourne during the 19th century. It had an initial enrollment of 320 students. As of 2013, it has an enrollment of around 82,000 students across vocational, undergraduate and postgraduate levels.In addition to its Melbourne City foundation campus, RMIT also has two radial campuses in the Melbourne metropolitan area—located in the northern suburbs of Bundoora and Brunswick; as well as training and research sites in the Melbourne metropolitan area and the Grampians state region—located in the western suburb of Point Cook and the town of Hamilton respectively. Outside Australia, it has two branch campuses in Asia—located in Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi, Vietnam; and a coordinating centre in Europe—located in Barcelona, Spain.In 2013, according to the QS World University Rankings, RMIT was ranked the 291st university in the world. RMIT was also ranked among the top 51-100 universities in the world in the subjects of: accounting, communication and media studies, computer science and information systems. Wikipedia.

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Patent
RMIT University | Date: 2015-03-04

A method for producing a customised orthopaedic implant is provided. The method involves scanning a bone from which a diseased region of bone will be resected to obtain a three dimensional digital image of an unresected volume of bone; scanning the bone after a diseased region of bone has been resected to obtain a corresponding three dimensional digital image of a resected volume of bone; and comparing the three dimensional digital image of the unresected volume of bone to the corresponding three dimensional digital image of the resected volume of bone to estimate a volume of bone that has been resected. The estimate of the volume of bone that has been resected is used to design a customised orthopaedic implant that substantially corresponds to the configuration of the resected volume of bone, the implant being configured to substantially restore a biomechanical function of the bone. Finally the customised orthopaedic implant is manufactured and provided for insertion into the resected region of bone.

Patent
RMIT University | Date: 2015-05-01

A process for the preparation of reduced graphene comprising the steps of: providing an expandable graphite intercalated with oxygen containing groups; heating the expandable graphite under conditions sufficient to cause expansion of the expandable graphite and formation of an expanded graphite comprising oxygen containing groups; and contacting the expanded graphite with carbon monoxide to reduce at least a portion of the oxygen containing groups and form a reduced expanded graphite comprising an array of reduced graphene. The process of the invention enables large volumes of high quality graphene to be produced.

Patent
RMIT University | Date: 2015-10-09

In general, techniques of this disclosure are directed to a sensor for measuring an external magnetic field. The sensor an optical cavity, a laser medium which together with the optical cavity has a laser threshold, a laser pump, and a radio-frequency (RF) drive applied to the laser medium, such that the laser threshold varies with a change in the external magnetic field. The RF drive may be applied to the laser medium at or around a particular resonance frequency which varies depending on the external magnetic field, such that depending on the value of the external magnetic field, the RF drive induces transitions between at least two states of the laser medium, each state causing a different laser threshold in an intensity of a laser output. Further, the intensity of the laser output may provide a measurement of the value of the external magnetic field.

Spencer M.J.S.,RMIT University | Spencer M.J.S.,La Trobe University
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2012

Gas sensor devices have traditionally comprised thin films of metal oxides, with tin oxide, zinc oxide and indium oxide being some of the most common materials employed. With the recent discovery of novel metal oxide nanostructures, sensors comprising nano-arrays or single nanostructures have shown improved performance over the thin films. The improved response of the nanostructures to different gases has been primarily attributed to the highly single crystalline surfaces as well as large surface area of the nanostructures. In this paper the properties of clean and defected quasi one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including hexagonal and triangular nanowires, nanotubes and facetted nanotubes are reviewed. The adsorption of atoms and molecules on the ZnO nanostructures are also reviewed and the findings are compared to studies examining similar reactions on nanostructured metal oxide surfaces for sensing purposes. While both experimental and theoretical approaches have been employed to examine gas sensor reactions, this review focuses on studies that employ electronic structure calculations, which primarily concentrate on using density functional theory. Computational studies have been useful in elucidating the reaction mechanism, binding strength, charge transfer as well as other electronic and structural properties of the nanomaterials and the gas-sensor interaction. Despite these studies there are still significant areas of research that need to be pursued that will assist in the link between theoretical and experimental findings, as well as advancing the current chemical and physical understanding of these novel materials. A summary and outlook for future directions of this exciting area of research is also provided. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li X.,RMIT University
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2010

Niching is an important technique for multimodal optimization. Most existing niching methods require specification of certain niching parameters in order to perform well. These niching parameters, often used to inform a niching algorithm how far apart between two closest optima or the number of optima in the search space, are typically difficult to set as they are problem dependent. This paper describes a simple yet effective niching algorithm, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm using a ring neighborhood topology, which does not require any niching parameters. A PSO algorithm using the ring topology can operate as a niching algorithm by using individual particles' local memories to form a stable network retaining the best positions found so far, while these particles explore the search space more broadly. Given a reasonably large population uniformly distributed in the search space, PSO algorithms using the ring topology are able to form stable niches across different local neighborhoods, eventually locating multiple global/local optima. The complexity of these niching algorithms is only ${\cal O}(N)$, where $N$ is the population size. Experimental results suggest that PSO algorithms using the ring topology are able to provide superior and more consistent performance over some existing PSO niching algorithms that require niching parameters. © 2006 IEEE.

Spencer S.J.,RMIT University
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal) nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the endocrine arm of the body's response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and/or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors. © 2013 Spencer.

Greaves T.L.,RMIT University | Drummond C.J.,RMIT University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2015

The thermal and physicochemical properties of protic ionic liquids (PILs) are reported. It is highly evident that there has been an extensive range of alkylammonium, imidazolium, and heterocyclic cations paired with many organic and inorganic anions that have been employed to prepare PILs. There has been strong interest in modifying the properties of PILs through the addition of water or other molecular solvents. For many applications, the presence of some water in the PILs is not detrimental, and instead leads to enhanced solvent properties such as lower viscosity, higher conductivities, and lower melting points. It remains an issue of definition though of how to refer to these resulting protic solutions. There is also an ongoing difficulty surrounding how to describe the proton activity in the PILs, analogous to pH in aqueous systems. For a broad range of applications, it has been reported that the acidity/basicity of the PIL or PIL-solvent system is crucial for their beneficial properties. It is expected that the fundamental properties of PILs will continue to be explored, along with continued interest in many existing and new applications, such as in electrochemistry, organic and inorganic synthesis, and biological applications. In particular, there has been a significant interest in a broad- range of PILs for use as electrolytes and incorporation in polymer electrolytes for fuel cells, and other energy storage devices.

Lohse D.,University of Twente | Lohse D.,Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization | Zhang X.,University of Twente | Zhang X.,RMIT University
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2015

Surface nanobubbles are nanoscopic gaseous domains on immersed substrates which can survive for days. They were first speculated to exist about 20 years ago, based on stepwise features in force curves between two hydrophobic surfaces, eventually leading to the first atomic force microscopy (AFM) image in 2000. While in the early years it was suspected that they may be an artifact caused by AFM, meanwhile their existence has been confirmed with various other methods, including through direct optical observation. Their existence seems to be paradoxical, as a simple classical estimate suggests that they should dissolve in microseconds, due to the large Laplace pressure inside these nanoscopic spherical-cap-shaped objects. Moreover, their contact angle (on the gas side) is much smaller than one would expect from macroscopic counterparts. This review will not only give an overview on surface nanobubbles, but also on surface nanodroplets, which are nanoscopic droplets (e.g., of oil) on (hydrophobic) substrates immersed in water, as they show similar properties and can easily be confused with surface nanobubbles and as they are produced in a similar way, namely, by a solvent exchange process, leading to local oversaturation of the water with gas or oil, respectively, and thus to nucleation. The review starts with how surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets can be made, how they can be observed (both individually and collectively), and what their properties are. Molecular dynamic simulations and theories to account for the long lifetime of the surface nanobubbles are then reported on. The crucial element contributing to the long lifetime of surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets is pinning of the three-phase contact line at chemical or geometric surface heterogeneities. The dynamical evolution of the surface nanobubbles then follows from the diffusion equation, Laplace's equation, and Henry's law. In particular, one obtains stable surface nanobubbles when the gas influx from the gas-oversaturated water and the outflux due to Laplace pressure balance. This is only possible for small enough surface bubbles. It is therefore the gas or oil oversaturation ζ that determines the contact angle of the surface nanobubble or nanodroplet and not the Young equation. The review also covers the potential technological relevance of surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets, namely, in flotation, in (photo)catalysis and electrolysis, in nanomaterial engineering, for transport in and out of nanofluidic devices, and for plasmonic bubbles, vapor nanobubbles, and energy conversion. Also given is a discussion on surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets in a nutshell, including theoretical predictions resulting from it and future directions. Studying the nucleation, growth, and dissolution dynamics of surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets will shed new light on the problems of contact line pinning and contact angle hysteresis on the submicron scale. © 2015 American Physical Society. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Strengers Y.,RMIT University
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Demand managers currently draw on a limited range of psychology and economic theories in order to shift and shed peak electricity demand. These theories place individual consumers and their attitudes, behaviours and choices at the centre of the problem. This paper reframes the issue of peak electricity demand using theories of social practices, contending that the 'problem' is one of transforming, technologically-mediated social practices. It reflects on how this body of theory repositions and refocuses the roles and practices of professions charged with the responsibility and agency for affecting and managing energy demand. The paper identifies three areas where demand managers could refocus their attention: (i) enabling co-management relationships with consumers; (ii) working beyond their siloed roles with a broader range of human and non-human actors; and (iii) promoting new practice 'needs' and expectations. It concludes by critically reflecting on the limited agency attributed to 'change agents' such as demand managers in dominant understandings of change. Instead, the paper proposes the need to identify and establish a new group of change agents who are actively but often unwittingly involved in reconfiguring the elements of problematic peaky practices. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Patent
RMIT University | Date: 2015-01-20

A structured porous metamaterial includes a three-dimensional matrix of at least one repeating base unit. The matrix is formed from an array of at least eight base units, each base unit including a platonic solid including at least one shaped void, wherein each base unit has void geometry tailored to provide a porosity of between 0.3 and 0.97, and to provide the metamaterial with a response that includes a Poissons ratio of 0 to 0.5 when under tension and compression, or negative linear compression (NLC), negative area compression (NAC), zero linear compression (ZLC), or zero area compression (ZAC) behaviour when under pressure.