Moosa N.Y.,Khyber Medical University |
Khattak N.,Khyber Medical University |
Alam M.I.,Pakistan International Medical College |
Sher A.,Pakistan International Medical College |
And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014
Cervical cancer is an issue of foremost importance globally, specifically affecting the developing nations. Significant advances have taken place with regard to diagnosis of cervical cancer, especially with screening. Appropriate screening measures can thus reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The most desirable screening technique should be less invasive, easy to perform, cost-effective and cover a wide range of diagnostic icons. Manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) can be considered as one of the suitable technique for screening with the above-mentioned benefits. The aim of the current study was to compare two cervical screening techniques on the basis of different morphological parameters and staining parameters by using modified acetic acid Pap staining to see the possibility of reducing time economy involved in conventional Pap staining (CPS). The study was conducted on a total 88 cases and all were analyzed with both MLBC and CPS. Forty eight cases that were regarded as satisfactory on the basis of Bethesda system by both methods were further recruited for investigation. Their morphological parameters and staining quality were compared and scored according to a scoring system defined in the study. Quality indices was calculated for both staining procedures and smear techniques.
Nomani A.Z.,Section of Nephrology |
Nabi Z.,Section of Nephrology |
Rashid H.,Section of Nephrology |
Janjua J.,Section of Nephrology |
And 4 more authors.
Renal Failure | Year: 2014
Mannitol is commonly used to lower intracranial and intraocular pressures. Large doses/massive infusions of mannitol have been found to be associated with acute renal failure (MI-ARF), that is, osmotic nephrosis. While many researchers have reported individual experiences with this pathology, we felt that there is need of an updated comprehensive review of all reported cases with elaboration of etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management plan for MI-ARF. The purpose of the present communication is to share our own experience with MI-ARF, to review the effect of mannitol on kidney function and to highlight the dynamics of MI-ARF with considerations for the cautious use of mannitol in patients with risk factors for kidney diseases. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Mishra B.,Rural Medical College |
Sinha N.D.,Rural Dental College |
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2010
Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83%) were young (15 to 30 years); from low i.e. 114 (31.66%) and mid i.e. 198 (55%) income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50%) and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%). Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P 0.01, 2 - 8.03), recent or on-day conflicts (P 0.001, 2 - 18.88) and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P 0.001, 2 - 30.25). Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55%) and end i.e. 69 (19.16%) of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72%) and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%). Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 ( 65.85%) were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%). Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 %) cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16%) after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h) in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion: Most of the factors responsible for RTA and its fatal consequences are preventable. A comprehensive multipronged approach can mitigate most of them.
The Racetrack Model Coil (RMC) is one of several demonstration test magnets being built by the group to understand and develop new technologies, which are vital for future accelerators. The shorter magnets are just 1 to 2 metres in length, compared to the 5-7 metre long ones needed for the High-Luminosity LHC. The tests are needed to prove the feasibility of creating magnetic fields of up to 16 tesla, which are built into the designs of future accelerators. "The present LHC dipoles have a nominal field of 8.3T and we are designing accelerators which need magnets to produce a field of around 16T – almost twice as much," says Juan Carlos Perez, an engineer at CERN and the project leader for the RMC. High-field magnets are crucial to building higher energy particle accelerators. High magnetic fields are needed to steer a beam in its orbit – in the case of dipoles - or to squeeze the beams before they collide within the experiments, which is the case for high-gradient quadrupoles. The LHC uses niobium-titanium superconducting magnets to both bend and focus proton beams as they race around the LHC. But the RMC uses a different superconducting material, niobium-tin, which can reach much higher magnetic fields, despite its brittle nature. The world record is a step forward in the demonstration of the technology for the High-Luminosity LHC project, and a major milestone for the Future Circular Collider design study. "It is an excellent result, although we should not forget that this is a relatively small magnet, a technology demonstrator with no bore through the centre for the beam," says Luca Bottura, Head of CERN's Magnet Group. "There is still a way to go before 16 Tesla magnets can be used in an accelerator. Still, this is a very important step towards them." The RMC is also using wires and cables of the same class as those being used to build FRESCA2, a 13T dipole magnet with a 100mm aperture that will be used to upgrade the CERN cable test facility FRESCA. FRESCA2 coils are currently under construction and will be ready for testing by summer 2016. Such fields are only possible thanks to new materials and technologies, and also close relationships between several physics communities. The team worked closely with other European and overseas research and development programmes to break the technology barriers. Explore further: Small but powerful: Fermilab develops magnets for the future High Luminosity LHC
Lehman W.,HEC |
Proceedings of the 3rd International Forum on Risk Analysis, Dam Safety Dam Security and Critical Infrastructure Management, 3IWRDD-FORUM | Year: 2012
HEC-FIA is a stand-alone, GIS-enabled tool for estimating event-based flood consequences. All damage assessments in HEC-FIA are computed on a structure-by-structure basis. HEC-FIA facilitates many different methods for generating structure inventories from readily available data with unique economic and population characteristics. The tool accepts necessary hydraulic data in a variety of formats and computes urban and agricultural economic flood damage, inundated area, number of structures inundated, population at risk, and loss of life from that inventory. Results can be used to inform risk assessments for dams and levees, which typically include evaluation of the full range of failure and non-failure scenarios. HEC-FIA life-loss computations include consideration of the effectiveness of warning systems, community responses to the alert, and evacuation of large populations. The ability to define warning issuance relative to breach initiation allows the user to distinguish between surprise events and forecasted events. HEC-FIA also facilitates analysis of economic and life safety benefits related to various non-structural flood damage reduction measures, including installation of flood warning systems, public education campaigns, and flood-proofing or raising of individual structures. These estimates can be computed with uncertainty for single catastrophic failures or non-failure events, including hypothetical or post-flood analyses. Additionally, HEC-FIA supports frequency-based calculations using the FRM compute option within HEC-WAT, to determine the statistical life loss estimates for the entire frequency curve, allowing decision makers to recognize which parameters contribute the most uncertainty to the life loss and economic loss estimations. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group.