Riyadh Girls' College of Education

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Riyadh Girls' College of Education

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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Khalil M.M.H.,Ain Shams University | Al-Seif F.A.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society | Year: 2010

The spiro-compound 3′H-spiro[indole-3,2′-[1,3]benzothiazole-2(1H)-one (IBTH2) was synthesized and its structure was determined using spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, 1H NMR and mass) and X-ray crystallography. This ligand possesses different centers for coordination. Reactions of [M(CO)6], M = Cr, Mo or W with IBTH2 in THF under reduced pressure were studied. For chromium a complex with molecular formula [Cr(ITP)2] was isolated; where ITP is the opened form of the ligand which occurred through Cspiro-S bond, while [Mo(CO)5(IBTH2)] and [W(CO)5(IBTH2)] were isolated from the reaction of IBTH2 with molybdenum and tungsten carbonyls, respectively. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, mass and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The biological activity of the ligand and its complexes were studied and compared with the parent compound isatin. © 2009.


Abdel-Aziz E.-S.H.,Alexandria University | Abdu S.B.S.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education | Ali T.E.-S.,Alexandria University | Fouad H.F.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts and young and mature erythrocytes. The proerythroblasts were the largest cells in the erythropoietic series. During the maturation process both the nuclear and cellular size decreased gradually due to the chromatin condensation and the progressive substitution of cytoplasmic matrix with a large amount of haemoglobin. Granulopoietic series consisted of cells with variable shape and size at different stages of maturity from myeloblasts to mature granulocytes. The promyelocytes were the largest cells in the series and were characterised by the appearance of primary (azoruphilic) granules. The maturation process involved the appearance of specific granules in the heterophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic series. It is important to mention that eosinophilic granulocytes were the dominant granulopoietic series in the haemopoietic tissue (Ht) of tilapia. Lymphopoietic series consisted of lymphoblasts, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes and active and inactive plasma cells. Thrombopoietic series consisted of thromboblasts, prothromboblasts and thrombocytes. Thrombocytes of tilapia were nucleated and possessed a spindle shape. Melanomacrophage centres were dominant among the Ht of the head kidney. Also, monocytes were detected and shown to be large cells with an indented nucleus and cytoplasm containing numerous vesicles of different sizes and a few lysosomes. © 2009 The Author(s).


Aboushady A.M.,Cairo University | El-Sawy S.A.R.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education
WIT Transactions on Information and Communication Technologies | Year: 2014

This paper presents a Fuzzy Consensus Qualitative Risk Analysis framework to identify and prioritize risks encountered in real estate projects, which is applied to developing countries. The framework incorporates the consensus and quality of experts in the process of evaluating risk events and is composed of (1) a Fuzzy Expert System (FES)to determine qualification of experts;(2) Fuzzy Similarity Aggregation Algorithms to aggregate experts' opinions; and (3) a threedimensional prioritization approach to rank the risks, qualitatively. Risks are identified through a literature review and interviews with experts who rank the risks in terms of their probability of occurrence, impact and level of detection; each is described using five linguistic terms that are defined by membership functions (MFs) on a 5-point rating scale. The FES determines an importance weight factor for each expert, based on a set of predetermined qualification attributes. Experts' opinions are aggregated in a linguistic framework, based on the proximity of their opinions on the scale to ensure that their aggregated decision is a result of common agreement. The importance weight factor is combined with the consensus weight factor of each expert in the aggregation process using a scalar modifier and the Euclidean Distance Measure Function is used to determine the linguistic criticality of every risk event. A threedimensional prioritization approach applies a set of ranking rules to every risk that enables experts to rank and visualize the priority of the risks in a three-dimensional space. The framework contributes to the Real estate industry by solving a major problem for project teams in developing countries to qualitatively evaluate risks in a fully supported linguistic framework, using fuzzy logic, which addresses the vagueness and imprecision that exist in the decision-making process. © 2014 WIT Press.


Fahmy M.M.,Cairo University | Al-Ghamdi R.F.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education | Mohamed N.A.,Cairo University
Polymer Bulletin | Year: 2011

Four novel wholly para-oriented aromatic poly(ether-amide-hydrazide)s containing various pendant groups on their aromatic rings were synthesized from p-aminosalicylic acid hydrazide (PASH) with an equimolar amount of either 4,4′-(1,4-phenylenedioxy)dibenzoyl chloride (1a), 4,4′-(2,5- tolylenedioxy)dibenzoyl chloride (1b), 4,4′-(2-tert-butyl-1,4- phenylenedioxy)dibenzoyl chloride (1c), or 4,4′-(2,5-biphenylenedioxy) dibenzoyl chloride (1d) via a low temperature solution polycondensation reaction. A polyamide-hydrazide without the ether and pendant groups, poly[4-(terephthaloylamino)salicylic acid hydrazide, PTASH, is also investigated for comparison. It was synthesized from PASH and terephthaloyl chloride by the same synthetic route. The polymer intrinsic viscosities ranged from 4.5 to 2.47 dlg-1 in N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) at 30 °C and decreased with the introduction of the ether and pendant groups into the polymer. All the polymers were soluble in DMAc, N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and their solutions could be cast into flexible films with good mechanical strengths. Further, they exhibited a great affinity to water sorption. Their solubility and hydrophilicity increased with introduction of the ether and pendant groups into the polymer. The prepared polymers could be thermally cyclodehydrated under nitrogen atmosphere into the corresponding poly(ether-amide-1,3,4-oxadiazole)s approximately in the region of 300-450 °C. The introduction of the flexibilizing ether linkages and the pendant groups into the polymer improves the solubility of the resulting poly(ether-amide-1,3,4-oxadiazole)s compared to poly(amide-1,3,4-oxadiazole) free from these groups. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Al-Jebreen D.H.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

A survey was conducted during 2008 to assess the attitudes and perceptions of the Riyadh University students towards genetically modified crops and foods. Using descriptive analysis, it was found that the majority of surveyed students had good knowledge of genetic modifications, but lack knowledge about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) values. Most respondents would not purchase clearly labelled GMO products, though considerable number of the respondents was ready to taste or try the products. It is evident from these results that majority of university students who participated in this survey, in general had very little information or didn't know the genetic engineering technology e.g., gene therapy, fingerprinting, role in reducing pesticide application etc., as appeared in the results, therefore, most of the participants did not know or thought GM foods are harmful and could not be easily detected. The implication of this result is that majority will not support GM products. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Zayed M.A.,Cairo University | El-Habeeb A.A.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2010

The reactions between diphrenhydramine drug (diphen) in the base form and the iodine amphoteric reagent (n-donor and/or σ-acceptor) and tetracyanoethylene as a π-acceptor reagent (TCNE) have been spectrophotometrically studied at different conditions of reactant concentrations, time intervals, temperatures, solvents, and differentwavelengths aiming to shed light on the nature of these reactions. Consequently, it is possible to select the proper conditions for spectrophotometric determination of this biologically active drug in its formulations. The reaction mechanism between iodine and diphen involves the formation of diphen-I 2 outer-and inner-sphere complexes, whereas diphen-TCNE reaction involves the formation of charge transfer (CT) complex. The analytical parameters of the suggested spectrphometric procedures have been calculated. The values of the Sandell sensitivity, standard deviation (SD), relative standard deviation (RSD) and recovery % refer to the high sensitivity of these procedures applied in analysis of diphen in its formulations. This research also presents a new diphen-I2 promising drug derivative that can be used for the same purpose as its parent. Both diphen-drug and diphen-I 2 separated solid product are critically investigated by elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1HNMR, electron ionizationmass spectrometry (EI-MS) and thermal analyses (TA). Practical investigation (TA and MS) data of diphen-drug and its reaction product are confirmed by MO calculations. This research gives a clear idea about the possible metabolites andmetabolic pathways of diphen and its derivative in vitro system thatmay occur in vivo system. The importance of this drug stems from its use as an antihistamine with anticholinergic (drying) and sedative side effects. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Aboushady A.M.,Cairo University | El-Sawy S.A.R.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2014

There are different sustainability indicators that may affect the construction projects which are necessary to be identified in order to improve the construction industry. This paper proposes a qualitative assessment framework that can assist construction project teams with a useful tool to identify and prioritize sustainability indicators impacting their projects. First, a literature review is conducted to identify the sustainability indicators that need to be considered in achieving a more sustainable construction project in Egypt. The factors are then ranked through a survey questionnaire and experts' judgment using a 7-point Likert scale to identify the most significant factors. The AHP is used in this paper to determine experts' importance weights. A case study of an infrastructure project in Egypt is conducted to identify, and prioritize different sustainability indicators affecting the construction of infrastructure projects in Egypt. The consent of framework development can be generalized and applied to other countries by changing related sustainability indicators and expert opinions. The framework solves a major problem that faces infrastructure construction project teams who want to Prioritize and assess quantitatively sustainability indicators existed in their projects prior to the start of construction phase. © 2013 WIT Press.


Zenkour A.M.,King Abdulaziz University | Alghamdi N.A.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education
Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures | Year: 2010

The bending response of sandwich plates subjected to thermo-mechanical loads is studied. The sandwich plate faces are assumed to have isotropic, two-constituent (metal-ceramic) material distribution through the thickness, and the modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, and thermal expansion coefficient of the faces are assumed to vary according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The core layer is still homogeneous and made of an isotropic ceramic material. Several kinds of sandwich plates are used, taking into account the symmetry of the plate and the thickness of each layer. Field equations for functionally graded sandwich plates whose deformations are governed by either the shear deformation theories or the classical theory are derived. Displacement functions that identically satisfy boundary conditions are used to reduce the governing equations to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Exact solutions for functionally graded materials (FGMs) sandwich plates are presented. Numerical results of the sinusoidal, third-order, first-order, and classical theories are presented to show the effect of material distribution on the deflections and stresses. A wide variety of results is presented for the static response of sandwich plates under thermo-mechanical loads. The effects of thermo-mechanical loads and other parameters on the dimensionless deflections and axial and transverse shear stresses of an FGM sandwich plate are studied. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Aboushady A.M.,Cairo University | El-Sawy S.A.R.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2014

This paper presents a Qualitative Risk Analysis Framework to identify and prioritize environmental risks encountered in infrastructure projects, which is applied to developing countries. The framework incorporates consensus and quality of experts in the process of evaluating environmental risk events and is composed of (1) Fuzzy Expert System (FES) to determine attributes of experts; (2) Fuzzy Similarity Aggregation Algorithms to aggregate experts’ opinions; and (3) three-dimensional prioritization approach to rank the risks, qualitatively. The FES determines an importance weight factor for each expert, based on a set of predetermined qualification attributes. Experts’ opinions are aggregated in a linguistic framework, based on the proximity of their opinions on the scale to ensure that their aggregated decision is a result of common agreement. The importance weight factor is combined with the consensus weight factor of each expert in the aggregation process using a scalar modifier and the Euclidean Distance Measure Function is used to determine the linguistic criticality of every environmental risk event. A three-dimensional prioritization approach applies a set of ranking rules to every risk that enables experts to rank and visualize the priority of the risks in a three-dimensional space. The framework contributes to the Construction industry by solving a major problem for project teams in developing countries to qualitatively evaluate environmental risks in a fully supported linguistic framework, using fuzzy logic, which addresses the vagueness and imprecision that exist in the decision-making process. It provides an improvement over other fuzzy qualitative-based models, using FES, instead of relying on an arbitrary assessment of experts’ qualifications in aggregating their opinions. © 2014 WIT Press.


Zenkour A.M.,King Abdulaziz University | Zenkour A.M.,Kafr El Sheikh University | Alghamdi N.A.,Riyadh Girls' College of Education
Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials | Year: 2010

The thermomechanical bending response of nonsymmetric sandwich plates of uniform thickness (constant depth) is studied. A power-law distribution for the mechanical characteristics is adopted to model the continuous variation of properties from those of one component to those of the other. The nonsymmetric sandwich plate faces are made of isotropic, two-constituent (ceramic-metal) material distribution through the thickness. The core layer is still homogeneous and made of an isotropic metal material. The modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio of the faces and the thermal expansion coefficient are assumed to vary according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Several kinds of nonsymmetric sandwich plates are presented. Field equations for functionally graded nonsymmetric sandwich plates whose deformations are governed by either the shear deformation theories or the classical theory are derived. Displacement and stress functions of the plate for different values of the power-law exponent and thickness-to-side ratios are presented. The results of the shear deformation theories are compared together. Numerical results for deflections and stresses of functionally graded metal-ceramic plates are investigated. © The Author(s), 2009.

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