River Diagnostics BV

Rotterdam, Netherlands

River Diagnostics BV

Rotterdam, Netherlands
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Willemse-Erix D.,Erasmus Medical Center | Willemse-Erix D.,River Diagnostics BV | Bakker-Schut T.,Rotterdam University | Bakker-Schut T.,River Diagnostics BV | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Enterobacteriaceae are important pathogens of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In particular, strains with broad-spectrum beta-lactamases increasingly cause problems in health care settings. Rapid and reliable typing systems are key tools to identify transmission, so that targeted infection control measures can be taken. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Raman spectroscopic analysis (RA) for the typing of multiresistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates using the SpectraCell RA bacterial strain analyzer (River Diagnostics). Analysis of 96 unrelated isolates revealed that RA generated highly reproducible spectra and exhibited a discriminatory power that is comparable to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, adequate results were obtained for three collections of clinical isolates. RA was able to discriminate outbreak-related isolates from isolates that were not involved in an outbreak or transmission. Furthermore, it was found that the RA approach recognized clones, irrespective of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase type. It can be concluded that RA is a suitable typing technique for E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Combining high reproducibility, speed, and ease-of-use, this technique may play an important role in monitoring the epidemiology of these important nosocomial species. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Janssens M.,Leiden University | Van Smeden J.,Leiden University | Gooris G.S.,Leiden University | Bras W.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2012

A hallmark of atopic eczema (AE) is skin barrier dysfunction. Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), primarily ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, are crucial for the barrier function, but their role in relation to AE is indistinct. Filaggrin is an epithelial barrier protein with a central role in the pathogenesis of AE. Nevertheless, the precise causes of AE-associated barrier dysfunction are largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of ceramide composition and lipid organization in nonlesional SC of AE patients and control subjects was performed by means of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the skin barrier and clinical state of the disease were examined. The level of ceramides with an extreme short chain length is drastically increased in SC of AE patients, which leads to an aberrant lipid organization and a decreased skin barrier function. Changes in SC lipid properties correlate with disease severity but are independent of filaggrin mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that changes in ceramide chain length and lipid organization are directly correlated with the skin barrier defects in nonlesional skin of AE patients. We envisage that these insights will provide a new therapeutic entry in therapy and prevention of AE. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Guyot K.,Laboratoire Of Microbiologie | Guyot K.,University Paris Diderot | Biran V.,APHP | Biran V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 17 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Nosocomial outbreaks of extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae are an increasing concern in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We describe an outbreak of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae that lasted 5 months and affected 23 neonates in our NICU. Proton pump inhibitor and extended-spectrum cephalosporin exposure were significantly associated with the risk of ESBLproducing K. pneumoniae colonisation and/or infection. Thirty isolates recovered from clinical, screening and environmental samples in the NICU were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The Raman clustering was in good agreement with the results of the other two molecular methods. Fourteen isolates belonged to the Raman clone 1 and 16 to the Raman clone 3. Molecular analysis showed that all the strains expressed SHV-1 chromosomal resistance, plasmid-encoded TEM-1 and CTX-M-15 β- lactamases. Incompatibility groups of plasmid content identified by PCR-based replicon typing indicated that resistance dissemination was due to the clonal spread of K. pneumoniae and horizontal CTX-M-15 gene transfer between the two clones. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Hoste E.,Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit | Hoste E.,Ghent University | Kemperman P.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Devos M.,Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit | And 25 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2011

Caspase-14 is a protease that is mainly expressed in suprabasal epidermal layers and activated during keratinocyte cornification. Caspase-14-deficient mice display reduced epidermal barrier function and increased sensitivity to UVB radiation. In these mice, profilaggrin, a protein with a pivotal role in skin barrier function, is processed correctly to its functional filaggrin (FLG) repeat unit, but proteolytic FLG fragments accumulate in the epidermis. In wild-type stratum corneum, FLG is degraded into free amino acids, some of which contribute to generation of the natural moisturizing factors (NMFs) that maintain epidermal hydration. We found that caspase-14 cleaves the FLG repeat unit and identified two caspase-14 cleavage sites. These results indicate that accumulation of FLG fragments in caspase-14 -/- mice is due to a defect in the terminal FLG degradation pathway. Consequently, we show that the defective FLG degradation in caspase-14-deficient skin results in substantial reduction in the amount of NMFs, such as urocanic acid and pyrrolidone carboxylic acid. Taken together, we identified caspase-14 as a crucial protease in FLG catabolism. © 2011 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.


Fluhr J.W.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Caspers P.,River Diagnostics B.V. | Van Der Pol J.A.,River Diagnostics B.V. | Richter H.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2011

The human organism has developed a protection system against the destructive effect of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of exogenous stress factors such as disinfectant and IR-A radiation on the skin, and their influence on the kinetics of carotenoids distribution during the recovery process. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with resonance spectroscopy using an Argon-laser at 488 nm to excite the carotenoids in vivo. Additionally, Raman-confocal-micro-spectroscopy measurements were performed using a model 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer with spatially resolved measurements down to 30 μm. The measurements were performed at a baseline of 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after an external stressor consisting either of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) with 150 mW/cm 2 or 1 ml/cm 2 of an alcoholic disinfectant. Both Raman methods were capable to detect the infrared-induced depletion of carotenoids. Only Raman-microspectroscopy could reveal the carotenoids decrease after topical disinfectant application. The carotenoid-depletion started at the surface. After 60 min, recovery starts at the surface while deeper parts were still depleted. The disinfectant- and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion in the epidermis recovers from outside to inside and probably delivered by sweat and sebaceous glands. We could show that the Raman microscopic spectroscopy is suited to analyze the carotenoid kinetic of stress effects and recovery. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Kezic S.,Coronel Institute of Occupational Health | O'Regan G.M.,Our Ladys Childrens Hospital | Lutter R.,University of Amsterdam | Jakasa I.,Coronel Institute of Occupational Health | And 19 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Background: Filaggrin (FLG) mutations result in reduced stratum corneum (SC) natural moisturizing factor (NMF) components and consequent increased SC pH. Because higher pH activates SC protease activity, we hypothesized an enhanced release of proinflammatory IL-1 cytokines from corneocytes in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) with FLG mutations (AD FLG) compared with that seen in patients with AD without these mutations (AD NON-FLG). Objectives: We sought to investigate SC IL-1 cytokine profiles in the uninvolved skin of controls and patients with AD FLG versus patients with AD NON-FLG. We also sought to examine the same profiles in a murine model of filaggrin deficiency (Flg ft/Flg ft [Flg delAPfal] mice). Methods: One hundred thirty-seven patients were studied. NMF levels were ascertained using confocal Raman spectroscopy; transepidermal water loss and skin surface pH were measured. IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and IL-8 levels were determined in SC tape strips from 93 patients. All subjects were screened for 9 FLG mutations. Flg ft/Flg ft (Flg delAPfal) mice, separated from maFlg ft/maFlg ft (flaky tail) mice, were used for the preparation and culture of primary murine keratinocytes and as a source of murine skin. RT-PCR was performed using primers specific for murine IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1RA. Results: SC IL-1 levels were increased in patients with AD FLG; these levels were inversely correlated with NMF levels. NMF values were also inversely correlated with skin surface pH. Skin and keratinocytes from Flg ft/Flg ft mice had upregulated expression of IL-1β and IL-1RA mRNA. Conclusions: AD FLG is associated with an increased SC IL-1 cytokine profile; this profile is also seen in a murine homologue of filaggrin deficiency. These findings might have importance in understanding the influence of FLG mutations on the inflammasome in the pathogenesis of AD and help individualize therapeutic approaches. © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.


Pudney P.D.A.,Unilever | Bonnist E.Y.M.,Unilever | Caspers P.J.,River Diagnostics BV | Caspers P.J.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 6 more authors.
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

This paper describes a new in vivo Raman probe that allows investigation of areas of the body that are otherwise difficult to access. It is coupled to a previously described commercially available in vivo Raman spectrometer that samples the skin through an optical flat. In the work presented here, the laser light emerges from a smaller pen-shaped probe. It thus works on the same principles as the original spectrometer, while its relative performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra and obtained spatial resolution is only slightly diminished. It allows the window to be placed against the subject in more curved and recessed areas of subject's body and also for them to be more comfortable while the measurements take place. Results from three areas of the body that have previously been very difficult to study are described, the mouth, axilla, and scalp. Results from the scalp and axilla strata cornea (SC) show significant differences from the "normal" SC of the volar forearm. For instance, the scalp is observed to have lower amounts of natural moisturizing factors (NMF) compared to the volar forearm within the same subjects. Also for both the axilla and scalp the lipids show a change in order as compared to the lipids in the volar forearm and also differences from each other. The potential significance of these observations is discussed. Further, we show how we can probe the mouth, in this case observing the presence of the astringent tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate within the oral mucosa. © 2012 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.


Willemse-Erix H.F.M.,Rotterdam University | Willemse-Erix H.F.M.,River Diagnostics BV | Jachtenberg J.,River Diagnostics BV | Barutci H.,Rotterdam University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are among the most frequently isolated bacterial species in clinical microbiology, and most CNS-related infections are hospital acquired. Distinguishing between these frequently multiple-antibiotic-resistant isolates is important for both treatment and transmission control. In this study we used isolates of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) that were selected from a large surveillance study of the direct spread of MR-CNS. This strain collection was used to evaluate (i) Raman spectroscopy as a typing tool for MR-CNS isolates and (ii) diversity between colonies with identical and different morphologies. Reproducibility was high, with 215 of 216 (99.5%) of the replicate samples for 72 isolates ending up in the same cluster. The concordance with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-based clusters was 94.4%. We also confirm that the skin of patients can be colonized with multiple MR-CNS types at the same time. Morphological differences between colonies from a single patient sample correlated with differences in Raman and PFGE types. Some morphologically indistinguishable colonies revealed different Raman and PFGE types. This indicates that multiple MR-CNS colonies should be examined to obtain a complete insight into the prevalence of different types and to be able to perform an accurate transmission analysis. Here we show that Raman spectroscopy is a reproducible typing system for MR-CNS isolates. It is a tool for screening variability within a collection of isolates. Because of the high throughput, it enables the analysis of multiple colonies per patient, which will enhance the quality of clinical and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Willemse-Erix D.F.M.,Erasmus Medical Center | Willemse-Erix D.F.M.,River Diagnostics BV | Jachtenberg J.-W.,River Diagnostics BV | Schut T.B.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biophotonics | Year: 2010

Raman spectra of bacteria can be used as highly specific fingerprints, enabling discrimination at strain level. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains can be strongly pigmented, making it difficult to obtain high quality spectra of such isolates due to high fluorescent spectral backgrounds. Furthermore, the spectra that could be measured with acceptable quality often showed large spectral variations limiting the reproducibility required for strain level discrimination. P. aeruginosa produces a characteristic yellowish green fluorescent pigment, called pyoverdin. Applying a washing procedure to reduce the amount of fluorescent pigment, enabled the highly pigmented isolates to be measured with sufficient spectral quality. Isolation of the pigment/pyoverdin spectral features, together with spectral scaling methods improved reproducibility. It will be important to analyze the range of the spectral variations that can occur and ensure the correction of all of these factors to obtain the highest reproducibility required for strain level typing. © 2010 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


O'Regan G.M.,Our Ladys Childrens Hospital | Kemperman P.M.J.H.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Sandilands A.,University of Dundee | Chen H.,University of Dundee | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Background: Filaggrin (FLG) has a central role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). FLG is a complex repetitive gene; highly population-specific mutations and multiple rare mutations make routine genotyping complex. Furthermore, the mechanistic pathways through which mutations in FLG predispose to AD are unclear. Objectives: We sought to determine whether specific Raman microspectroscopic natural moisturizing factor (NMF) signatures of the stratum corneum could be used as markers of FLG genotype in patients with moderate-to-severe AD. Methods: The composition and function of the stratum corneum in 132 well-characterized patients with moderate-to-severe AD were assessed by means of confocal Raman microspectroscopy and measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). These parameters were compared with FLG genotype and clinical assessment. Results: Three subpopulations closely corresponding with FLG genotype were identified by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman signature of NMF discriminated between FLG-associated AD and non-FLG-associated AD (area under the curve, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99). In addition, within the subset of FLG-associated AD, NMF distinguished between patients with 1 versus 2 mutations. Five novel FLG mutations were found on rescreening outlying patients with Raman signatures suggestive of undetected mutations (R3418X, G1138X, S1040X, 10085delC, and L2933X). TEWL did not associate with FLG genotype subgroups. Conclusions: Raman spectroscopy permits rapid and highly accurate stratification of FLG-associated AD. FLG mutations do not influence TEWL within established moderate-to-severe AD. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

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