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Rotterdam, Netherlands

Guyot K.,Laboratoire Of Microbiologie | Guyot K.,University Paris Diderot | Biran V.,APHP | Biran V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 17 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Nosocomial outbreaks of extended-spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae are an increasing concern in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We describe an outbreak of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae that lasted 5 months and affected 23 neonates in our NICU. Proton pump inhibitor and extended-spectrum cephalosporin exposure were significantly associated with the risk of ESBLproducing K. pneumoniae colonisation and/or infection. Thirty isolates recovered from clinical, screening and environmental samples in the NICU were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The Raman clustering was in good agreement with the results of the other two molecular methods. Fourteen isolates belonged to the Raman clone 1 and 16 to the Raman clone 3. Molecular analysis showed that all the strains expressed SHV-1 chromosomal resistance, plasmid-encoded TEM-1 and CTX-M-15 β- lactamases. Incompatibility groups of plasmid content identified by PCR-based replicon typing indicated that resistance dissemination was due to the clonal spread of K. pneumoniae and horizontal CTX-M-15 gene transfer between the two clones. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

O'Regan G.M.,National Childrens Research Center | Kemperman P.M.J.H.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Sandilands A.,University of Dundee | Chen H.,University of Dundee | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Background: Filaggrin (FLG) has a central role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). FLG is a complex repetitive gene; highly population-specific mutations and multiple rare mutations make routine genotyping complex. Furthermore, the mechanistic pathways through which mutations in FLG predispose to AD are unclear. Objectives: We sought to determine whether specific Raman microspectroscopic natural moisturizing factor (NMF) signatures of the stratum corneum could be used as markers of FLG genotype in patients with moderate-to-severe AD. Methods: The composition and function of the stratum corneum in 132 well-characterized patients with moderate-to-severe AD were assessed by means of confocal Raman microspectroscopy and measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). These parameters were compared with FLG genotype and clinical assessment. Results: Three subpopulations closely corresponding with FLG genotype were identified by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman signature of NMF discriminated between FLG-associated AD and non-FLG-associated AD (area under the curve, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99). In addition, within the subset of FLG-associated AD, NMF distinguished between patients with 1 versus 2 mutations. Five novel FLG mutations were found on rescreening outlying patients with Raman signatures suggestive of undetected mutations (R3418X, G1138X, S1040X, 10085delC, and L2933X). TEWL did not associate with FLG genotype subgroups. Conclusions: Raman spectroscopy permits rapid and highly accurate stratification of FLG-associated AD. FLG mutations do not influence TEWL within established moderate-to-severe AD. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Willemse-Erix D.,Erasmus Medical Center | Willemse-Erix D.,River Diagnostics BV | Bakker-Schut T.,Rotterdam University | Bakker-Schut T.,River Diagnostics BV | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Enterobacteriaceae are important pathogens of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In particular, strains with broad-spectrum beta-lactamases increasingly cause problems in health care settings. Rapid and reliable typing systems are key tools to identify transmission, so that targeted infection control measures can be taken. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Raman spectroscopic analysis (RA) for the typing of multiresistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates using the SpectraCell RA bacterial strain analyzer (River Diagnostics). Analysis of 96 unrelated isolates revealed that RA generated highly reproducible spectra and exhibited a discriminatory power that is comparable to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, adequate results were obtained for three collections of clinical isolates. RA was able to discriminate outbreak-related isolates from isolates that were not involved in an outbreak or transmission. Furthermore, it was found that the RA approach recognized clones, irrespective of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase type. It can be concluded that RA is a suitable typing technique for E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Combining high reproducibility, speed, and ease-of-use, this technique may play an important role in monitoring the epidemiology of these important nosocomial species. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Hoste E.,Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit | Hoste E.,Ghent University | Kemperman P.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Devos M.,Molecular Signaling and Cell Death Unit | And 25 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2011

Caspase-14 is a protease that is mainly expressed in suprabasal epidermal layers and activated during keratinocyte cornification. Caspase-14-deficient mice display reduced epidermal barrier function and increased sensitivity to UVB radiation. In these mice, profilaggrin, a protein with a pivotal role in skin barrier function, is processed correctly to its functional filaggrin (FLG) repeat unit, but proteolytic FLG fragments accumulate in the epidermis. In wild-type stratum corneum, FLG is degraded into free amino acids, some of which contribute to generation of the natural moisturizing factors (NMFs) that maintain epidermal hydration. We found that caspase-14 cleaves the FLG repeat unit and identified two caspase-14 cleavage sites. These results indicate that accumulation of FLG fragments in caspase-14 -/- mice is due to a defect in the terminal FLG degradation pathway. Consequently, we show that the defective FLG degradation in caspase-14-deficient skin results in substantial reduction in the amount of NMFs, such as urocanic acid and pyrrolidone carboxylic acid. Taken together, we identified caspase-14 as a crucial protease in FLG catabolism. © 2011 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Fluhr J.W.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Caspers P.,River Diagnostics BV | Van Der Pol J.A.,River Diagnostics BV | Richter H.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2011

The human organism has developed a protection system against the destructive effect of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of exogenous stress factors such as disinfectant and IR-A radiation on the skin, and their influence on the kinetics of carotenoids distribution during the recovery process. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with resonance spectroscopy using an Argon-laser at 488 nm to excite the carotenoids in vivo. Additionally, Raman-confocal-micro-spectroscopy measurements were performed using a model 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer with spatially resolved measurements down to 30 μm. The measurements were performed at a baseline of 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after an external stressor consisting either of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) with 150 mW/cm 2 or 1 ml/cm 2 of an alcoholic disinfectant. Both Raman methods were capable to detect the infrared-induced depletion of carotenoids. Only Raman-microspectroscopy could reveal the carotenoids decrease after topical disinfectant application. The carotenoid-depletion started at the surface. After 60 min, recovery starts at the surface while deeper parts were still depleted. The disinfectant- and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion in the epidermis recovers from outside to inside and probably delivered by sweat and sebaceous glands. We could show that the Raman microscopic spectroscopy is suited to analyze the carotenoid kinetic of stress effects and recovery. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

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