Rivalea Australia Pty. Ltd.

Corowa, Australia

Rivalea Australia Pty. Ltd.

Corowa, Australia
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Patent
Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | Date: 2015-03-25

The technology relates to a method of increasing ractopamine response in a ruminant by feeding a ruminant an animal feed containing a synergistic combination of ractopamine and caffeine to extend the response to ractopamine in the ruminant.


Smits R.J.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | Luxford B.G.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | Mitchell M.,University of Adelaide | Nottle M.B.,University of Adelaide
Animal Production Science | Year: 2013

The response in reproductive performance when pigs are fed diets supplemented with fats high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has not been widely studied. Improved fertility has been reported in sows and other species fed diets with added fish oil, a rich source of omega-3 PUFA, but results are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the duration and the level of supplementation of omega-3 PUFA from fish oil on the reproductive performance of gilts. In Experiment 1, 570 Large White and Landrace purebred gilts were fed ad libitum either an unsupplemented diet containing tallow (Control) or a diet containing 3 g fish oil/kg (Omega-3) as a partial replacement for tallow from 24 weeks (Omega-3 for 6 weeks) or 27 weeks of age (Omega-3 for 3 weeks) before mating. Liveweight and backfat gain between 24 weeks of age and mating were recorded. Gilts were then fed an unsupplemented diet during gestation and farrowing rate and first litter size were recorded. In Experiment 2, 356 Large White Landrace F1 cross gilts were fed ad libitum diets containing either 0, 3 or 10 g fish oil/kg of diet as a partial replacement of tallow from 24 weeks of age and continued after mating at 2.2 kg/day until slaughter at 25 days of gestation. Pregnancy rate, ovulation and embryo survival were recorded. Data were analysed by general linear model ANOVA and Chi-square methods. In Experiment 1, there was no increase in farrowing rate or litter size born in gilts fed the omega-3-supplemented diet for either 3 or 6 weeks before mating compared with Control gilts. In Experiment 2, supplementation with omega-3 PUFA from 24 weeks of age through to mating and continued during early gestation did not increase ovulation rate but there was a trend (P 0.10) for an increase in embryo survival measured at Day 25 of gestation in gilts fed diets containing fish oil. Embryo survival was higher in gilts fed diets containing 3 g fish oil/kg of diet than in those fed the Control diet (P 0.05). Increasing the supplementation level to 10 g fish oil/kg did not increase embryo survival further. In both experiments, supplementation of omega-3 as fish oil did not affect the onset of oestrous, gilt removal and weight and backfat gain. In conclusion, supplementation of omega-3 PUFA before mating did not improve farrowing rate or litter size in gilts. It may be necessary to continue feeding diets with low concentrations of fish oil during early gestation to maximise the reproductive response to elevated omega-3 PUFA.


Van Wettere W.H.E.J.,University of Adelaide | Smits R.J.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | Hughes P.E.,Pig and Poultry Production Institute
Animal Production Science | Year: 2013

Maternal intake of B-vitamin and methyl donors can affect sow prolificacy. A total of 1079 Large White/Landrace sows (parities 2-9 at mating) were used in a 2 by 2 by 2 factorial design to determine the effects of two levels of betaine supplementation (0 versus 3 g added betaine/kg feed), two levels of folic acid plus vitamin B12 supplementation (0 versus 20 mg/kg folic acid plus 150 g/kg vitamin B12) during gestation, and two parity groups (parity 2 and 3 versus parity 4 and greater) on litter size and pregnancy outcomes. The number of sows returning to oestrus post-insemination, as well as the number of early (Day 30) and late (Day 30) pregnancy losses were recorded. At farrowing, the total number of piglets born, the number of piglets born alive and dead, as well as the number of mummified fetuses were recorded. Pre-prandial blood samples were collected from a subset of 20 sows/treatment on Days 3, 30 and 107 of gestation to analyse homocysteine. The incidence of early pregnancy loss was reduced (P 0.001) by folic acid plus vitamin B12 supplementation (0.03 versus 0.07). There was a significant interaction between parity at mating (parities 2 and 3 versus parity 4 and greater) and the addition of betaine or folic acid plus vitamin B12 to the gestation diet on litter size. Litter size was higher (0.5 piglets; P 0.05) for betaine supplemented, compared with unsupplemented, parity 4 plus sows. Folic acid plus vitamin B12-supplemented parity 2 and 3 sows gave birth to more (P 0.05) piglets than all other treatment groups. Folic acid plus vitamin B12 supplementation decreased (P 0.001) plasma homocysteine concentration by 2.2 and 2.8 M, respectively, on Days 3 and 107 of gestation. However, betaine supplementation decreased (P 0.05) homocysteine on Day 3 only. Overall, folic acid plus vitamin B12 supplementation decreased incidences of early pregnancy failure and increased litter size in early parity sows, while betaine increased litter size in older parity sows.


Smits R.J.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | Luxford B.G.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | Mitchell M.,University of Adelaide | Nottle M.B.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Supplementing diets with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil has been shown to improve reproductive performance in dairy cattle and sheep, but there is little published literature on its effects in sows. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of sows fed fish oil as a source of n-3 PUFA prefarrowing and during lactation. From d 107.7 ± 0.1 of pregnancy, 328 sows ranging in parity from 0 to 7 (parity 1.95 ± 0.09, mean ± SE) were fed either a diet containing tallow (control) or an isocaloric diet containing 3 g of fish oil/kg of diet (n-3). Diets were formulated to contain the same amount of DE (13.9 MJ/kg), crude fat (54 g/kg), and CP (174 g/kg). Sows were fed their treatment diet at 3 kg daily for 8 d before farrowing and continued on treatment diets ad libitum until weaning at 18.7 ± 0.1 d of lactation. After weaning, all sows were fed a gestation diet without fish oil until their subsequent farrowing. There was no effect (P > 0.310) of feeding n-3 diets prefarrowing on piglet birth weight, preweaning growth rate, piglet weaning weight, or sow feed intake. However, n-3 sows had a larger subsequent litter size (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 9.7 ± 0.3 total born; 10.2 ± 0.3 vs. 9.3 ± 0.3 born live; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that feeding sows a diet containing n-3 PUFA from fish oil fed before farrowing and during lactation increased litter size in the subsequent parity independent of energy intake. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science.


Liu F.,University of Melbourne | Cottrell J.J.,University of Melbourne | Collins C.L.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd. | Henman D.J.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2017

Heat stress (HS) exacerbates the body weight loss of lactating sows and reduces litter weight gain. Selenium (Se), vitamin E (VE), chromium (Cr) and betaine have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of HS, and yeast nucleotides and mannan oligosaccharides have been reported to improve lactational performance and immune response in pigs. Therefore, a combination of these nutrients may improve lactational performance of sows in summer. The effects of two nutritionally enhanced diets on lactational performance of sows in summer were investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1, we compared the effects of a nutritionally fortified diet (0.4 ppm Se, 95 IU/kg VE, 0.4 ppm Cr and 0.2% betaine; named as SVCB diet) with the NRC 2012 standard diet (0.15 ppm Se, 44 IU/kg VE) on lactational performance of sows in summer. Results showed that the SVCB diet reduced body weight loss (P = 0.039) and tended to reduce backfat loss (P = 0.075) of sows without affecting feed intake, while litter weight gain was not influenced. In experiment 2, we further enhanced the nutrients in the SVCB diet (0.8 ppm Se, 1% yeast nucleotides, and 0.1% mannan oligosaccharides; named as SNM diet). Results showed that the SNM diet did not improve feed intake of sows, farrowing performance, or litter weight gain compared with the SVCB diet, but increased body weight loss of the third parity sows (P = 0.037). Overall, a combined supplementation of Se, VE, Cr, and betaine above the NRC recommended levels can reduce mobilisation of body reserve of lactating sows in summer. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Miller Y.J.,Portec Veterinary Services Australia | Collins A.M.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Emery D.,University of Sydney | Begg D.J.,University of Sydney | And 2 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2013

Gilt progeny have lower weaning weights and higher post-weaning medication and mortality rates, indicating greater disease susceptibility, than do sow progeny. The present study aimed to identify explanatory innate or adaptive immunity differences between gilt and sow progeny and potential pre- or post-natal influences. Sixty-four dams were vaccinated twice pre-farrowing with tetanus toxoid (TT). Serum (pre-vaccination) and colostrum and/or milk samples were collected to determine concentrations of TT-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Piglets were removed from their birth dam before suckling and fostered (not to their birth dam) to form 16 gilt and 16 sow litters, with five gilt-born and five sow-born piglets per litter. Piglets were vaccinated at weaning (4 weeks old) with either TT or saline (control). Sera and whole blood were collected from three gilt-born and three sow-born piglets per litter at 2, 4 and 7 weeks of age. Innate immunity was assessed indirectly on whole blood using an interferon gamma (IFN-) immune cell stimulation assay and a phagocytic assay. Piglets were weighed at birth, 4, 10, 17 and 22 weeks of age. There was no difference (P 0.05) in the concentration of TT-specific IgG in colostrum and milk from gilts and older-parity sows, suggesting a similar ability to transfer IgG antibodies to a novel antigen. Birth dam parity did not affect piglets' TT-specific IgG concentrations pre-weaning (P 0.05) suggesting similar ability to absorb passively acquired IgG. Sow-reared piglets, however, had lower (P 0.05) concentrations of TT-specific IgG than did gilt-reared piglets, possibly due to haemodilution in the faster-growing sow progeny. Gilt-born progeny had a reduced IgG response post-weaning to TT vaccination relative to sow-born progeny (P 0.05), indicating adaptive immunity differences. Birth dam parity did not affect (P 0.05) innate immunity (number/responsiveness of cells). Rearing dam parity influenced phagocytic activity pre- and post-weaning (gilt-reared sow-reared; P 0.05), possibly due to increased pathogen challenge. Birthweight was affected by birth dam parity (sow-born gilt-born; P 0.05) while rearing dam parity determined weaning weight (sow-reared gilt-reared; P 0.05), with no difference evident at 22 weeks. The results of the present study suggest that gilt-born progeny may be more susceptible to disease post-weaning than sow-born progeny due to their lower birthweight and reduced humoral immune responsiveness. The rearing dam may also affect disease susceptibility in progeny due to slower pre-weaning growth, lower weaning weights and increased pathogen challenge, both pre- and post-weaning.


Newman R.E.,University of Sydney | Downing J.A.,University of Sydney | Thomson P.C.,University of Sydney | Collins C.L.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

Three studies investigated the effect of feeding strategy on production performance and endocrine status of growing pigs. For Experiment 1, 20 entire male pigs (70.0 ± 4.6 kg) were allocated randomly to individual pens in one of four climate-controlled rooms. Pigs were fed for 23 days either ad libitum or entrained to feed bi-phasically for two 90-min periods. For Experiment 2, 20 entire male pigs (41.2 ± 3.5 kg) were housed as per Experiment 1. Pigs were fed for 49 days either ad libitum or fed bi-phasically for two 60-min periods. For Experiment 3, 100 female pigs (66.1 ± 3.5 kg) were randomly allocated to individual pens within a commercial piggery and fed for 42 days either ad libitum or bi-phasically for two 60-min periods. Ear vein catheters were inserted into 10 pigs from each group and hourly blood samples were collected for 24 h in Experiments 1 and 2 and for 11 h in Experiment 3. Plasma insulin, non-esterified fatty acid and glucose concentrations were determined in Experiments 1 and 2, and glucose and insulin concentrations in Experiment 3. Feed intake and performance were recorded in all experiments and carcass composition was assessed by computed tomography for Experiment 2. There were no differences in final liveweight between the two treatment groups for all experiments. Pigs fed for two 90-min periods (Experiment 1) showed no difference in feed intake when compared with feeding ad libitum. Pigs in Experiment 2 fed for two 60-min intervals consumed 2.49 kg/pig.day compared with those fed ad libitum that consumed 2.68 kg/day (P ≤ 0.057). In Experiment 3, pigs fed twice daily consumed 2.82 kg/pig.day compared with 2.91 kg/pig.day in ad libitum-fed pigs (P ≤ 0.051). Bi-phasic fed pigs in Experiment 2 had improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency compared with pigs fed ad libitum. For all experiments, there was no difference in plasma glucose concentrations between the two treatments. In all three experiments, the circulating insulin concentrations for pigs fed ad libitum remained at a constant level throughout the sampling period. However, plasma insulin concentrations for the bi-phasic fed pigs significantly increased ∼1 h after both feeding periods during all three experiments. Insulin secretion of pigs fed for two 90-min periods differed from that of pigs fed for two 60-min periods. Plasma insulin concentration increased five-fold following feeding for 60 min, compared with that in pigs fed for 90 min, which increased two-fold. Bi-phasic-fed pigs from Experiment 2 had reduced (P < 0.05) total carcass fat and significantly increased muscle when compared with pigs fed ad libitum. The data showed that feeding pigs at two succinct periods aligned insulin secretion to the time of feeding. Pigs fed for 60 min, unlike those fed for 90-min intervals, had reduced feed intake in comparison to those fed ad libitum. This may suggest that the duration of the feeding bout is important for this response and this may in turn influence both energy balance and the way energy is partitioned. © 2014 CSIRO.


Smits R.J.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | Henman D.J.,Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | King R.H.,RHK Consulting Pty Ltd
Animal Production Science | Year: 2013

In an experiment designed to evaluate the lactation and reproductive response to increasing energy in lactation, 288 pregnant nulliparous sows were allocated to diets formulated to contain: 13.0, 13.6, 14.2, 14.7 or 15.3 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg of diet fed. Sows commenced their dietary regimen at 109.6 0.1 days of gestation. Sows were fed 3 kg/day of their treatment diet before farrowing, then diets were offered ad libitum until weaning at 26.9 0.1 days. Sows were fed a commercial diet postweaning until mating and throughout their subsequent gestation. There was no effect of dietary energy level on first-litter size born (10.5 0.1 liveborn) or average piglet birthweight (1.44 0.01 kg). Sow ad libitum feed intake during lactation was also unaffected by dietary energy level. There was no linear or quadratic response to dietary energy level on litter gain during lactation (1.79 0.03 kg/day). Consequently sows lost weight during lactation in an inverse linear response to dietary energy level (P 0.001) and sow weaning weight and backfat P2 increased with energy level (181 kg and 16.1 mm at 13.1 MJ DE/kg versus 191 kg and 17.2 mm at 15.3 MJ DE/kg, respectively, P 0.05). The proportion of sows staying in the herd until their second litter and the cumulative litter size over two parities was maximised when sows were fed a lactation diet containing at least 14.2 MJ DE/kg (P 0.05). Increasing the dietary energy content of lactation diets resulted in an improvement in sow productivity over their early parities, but did not increase lactation performance.


Patent
Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd | Date: 2013-10-08

An animal feed supplement comprising a synergistic combination of ractopamine and caffeine and a method of increasing feed efficiency of a pig using the animal feed supplement is described.


PubMed | University Putra Malaysia, Australian Pork Ltd, Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd and University of Melbourne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2014

The influence of dietary lecithin at doses of 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg fed to finisher gilts for six weeks prior to slaughter on growth performance, carcass quality and pork quality was investigated. M. longissimus lumborum (loin) was removed from 36 pig carcasses at 24h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, collagen content and colour analyses. Dietary lecithin increased dressing percentage (P=0.009). Pork chewiness and collagen content were decreased by dietary lecithin (P<0.05, respectively), suggesting that improved chewiness may be due to decreased collagen content. However, dietary lecithin had no effect on shear force, cohesiveness or hardness (P>0.05, respectively). Dietary lecithin reduced loin muscle L* values and increased a* values (P<0.05, respectively) but no changes on b* values (P=0.56). The data showed that dietary lecithin improved dressing percentage and resulted in less chewy and less pale pork.

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