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Herrlisheim, France

Bourioug M.,Jean-Francois Champollion University Center for Teaching and Research | Alaoui-Sehmer L.,University of Franche Comte | Laffray X.,University of Franche Comte | Benbrahim M.,RITTMO Agroenvironnement | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

The spreading of sewage sludge (SS) among forest plantations may provide interesting results for firewood production. While sludges are good fertilizers, they may nevertheless contain trace metals, which can reduce productivity and lead to environmental risks. We investigated the effects of SS application on nutrient uptake and growth parameters in larch seedlings (Larix decidua) and determined trace metal and mineral distribution. Without incorporation into the soil, sludge was applied to the soil surface at three rates (0, 30 and 60t dry weight DW ha-1). The plants were harvested after 12 months. The results showed significantly increased nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the top soil layer in pots amended with sludge, whereas no changes appeared in the lower layers. Similar results were obtained for the Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations. However, no differences were observed for the other measured soil mineral elements. Nitrogen concentrations in needles increased with rising sewage sludge application rates, yet the sludge had no effect on the P, Mg, Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations. In addition, Cu accumulated only in the lateral roots of seedlings that received the highest sludge loading rate. Sludge application improved the net photosynthesis, which resulted in higher chlorophyll contents in the needles. Following application, the dry matter accumulation rate increased due to the excessive availability of N, whereas available mineral elements in the plant tissues were diluted. Furthermore, amending the soil with sewage sludge can promote a higher biomass yield which may result in an increased trace metal bioaccumulation capacity in plants. Though this investigation has established the benefits of municipal SS application, further studies are needed to assess the potential transfer of TM to groundwater and through the food chain. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Bourioug M.,Jean-Francois Champollion University Center for Teaching and Research | Gimbert F.,University of Burgundy | Alaoui-Sehmer L.,University of Burgundy | Benbrahim M.,RITTMO Agroenvironnement | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in a soil plant (Lactuca sativa) continuum were measured after sewage sludge amendment. The effects of sewage sludge on growth and trace metal bioaccumulation in snails (Cantareus aspersus) were investigated in a laboratory experiment specifically designed to identify contamination sources (e.g., soil and leaves). Application of sewage sludge increased trace metal concentrations in topsoil. However, except Zn, metal concentrations in lettuce leaves did not reflect those in soil. Lettuce leaves were the main source of Zn, Cu, and Cd in exposed snails. Bioaccumulation of Pb suggested its immediate transfer to snails via the soil. No apparent toxic effects of trace metal accumulation were observed in snails. Moreover, snail growth was significantly stimulated at high rates of sludge application. This hormesis effect may be due to the enhanced nutritional content of lettuce leaves exposed to sewage sludge. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Pensec F.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Marmonier A.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | Marchal A.,CNRS Oenologie Research Unit | Gersch S.,CNRS Vine Health and Wine Quality | And 5 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2013

Background and Aims: Xiphinema index and X.diversicaudatum are nematodes that transmit the grapevine fanleaf virus and the Arabis mosaic virus, respectively. These viruses are the two agents mainly responsible for the disease that causes the most economic damage to grapevines worldwide. The infectious degeneration of grapevines affects vine performance and grape composition. The control of Xiphinema populations by soil disinfection is now impossible because of the removal from the market of the last available chemical treatments. In this study, saponins are assessed as an alternative treatment to control nematode populations. Methods and Results: The nematicidal effect of saponins from Gypsophila paniculata roots was tested against X.index and X.diversicaudatum. In aqueous media, a concentration of 1mg/mL was associated with a mortality of greater than 95% in both nematodes, while in rearing soil, 73% of X.index and 85% of X.diversicaudatum were killed by 150μg of saponins per gram of soil. In addition, an ecotoxicological study was undertaken on two soil bio-indicators (the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and soil nitrification) that revealed that they were not affected by Gy.paniculata saponins at a nematicidal concentration. In the soil, investigation of the major Gy.paniculata root saponins revealed that these molecules were completely degraded in the soil within 4 days. Conclusion: We show that Gy.paniculata saponins are an efficient and environmentally friendly treatment against two nematodes that transmit grapevine fanleaf virus. Significance of the Study: This saponin-based alternative to chemical treatments could provide an environmentally safe and efficient solution for vine growers to use against grapevine fanleaf vector nematodes. © 2013 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.

Bourioug M.,University of Franche Comte | Gimbert F.,University of Franche Comte | Alaoui-Sehmer L.,University of Franche Comte | Benbrahim M.,RITTMO Agroenvironnement | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

We studied the potential bioaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by the snail Cantareus aspersus and evaluated the risk of leaching after application of sewage sludge to forest plantation ecosystems. Sewage sludge was applied to the soil surface at two loading rates (0, and 6tonsha-1 in dry matter) without incorporation into the soil so as to identify the sources of trace metal contamination in soil and plants and to evaluate effects on snail growth. The results indicated a snail mortality rate of less than 1% during the experiment, while their dry weight decreased significantly (<0.001) in all treatment modalities. Thus, snails showed no acute toxicity symptoms after soil amendment with sewage sludge over the exposure period considered. Additions of sewage sludge led to higher levels of trace metals in forest litter compared to control subplots, but similar trace metal concentrations were observed in sampling plants. Bioaccumulation study demonstrated that Zn had not accumulated in snails compared to Cu which accumulated only after 28days of exposure to amended subplots. However, Pb and Cd contents in snails increased significantly after 14 and 28days of exposure in both the control and amended subplots. At the last sampling date, in comparison to controls the Cd increase was higher in snails exposed to amended subplots. Thus, sludge spread therefore appears to be responsible for the observed bioaccumulation for Cu and Cd after 28days of exposure. Concerning Pb accumulation, the results from litter-soil-plant compartments suggest that soil is this metal's best transfer source. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Roger A.,Institute For Pflanzenbauwissenschaften Ipb | Roger A.,Groupe Rouiller Center Mondial Dinnovation | Pluchon S.,Groupe Rouiller Center Mondial Dinnovation | Yvin J.-C.,Groupe Rouiller Center Mondial Dinnovation | And 3 more authors.
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2016

Phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral for plant growth. Given that easily extractable global stocks of P are declining and that P over-fertilisation can be a source of pollution, it would appear necessary to improve the efficiency of phosphate fertilisers in agriculture. Two independent experiments were carried out at Agroscope Changins (Switzerland) and RITTMO-Colmar (France) to compare the efficiency of a fertiliser combining a complexed phosphate with a biostimulant (SSPTIM) to the currently used phosphate fertiliser, the simple superphosphate (SSP). Each experiment was conducted in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. The experiment in Colmar was conducted on an acidic sandy soil, the one in Changins on a neutral clay soil with a high P-fixing capacity. In both cases, five treatments were compared: a control (no P input) and two different doses for each of the two fertilisers (SSP and SSP-TIM) equivalent to 25 and 50 kg of P2O5 per hectare, respectively. On the acidic soil, the SSP-TIM fertiliser at the 25 kg P2O5/ha dose produced a significant increase in total wheat yield 19% higher than that achieved by the SSP fertiliser. On the clay soil, the SSP-TIM also brought a positive of 5% but not significant increase in wheat yield. Results vary according to the stage of development of the plant and the dose of applied fertiliser, among other factors. This study shows that the SSP-TIM fertiliser can be used to good effect in both types of soil, especially when the dose of fertiliser is reduced, which corresponds to numerous agricultural situations in Switzerland. © 2016, A M T R A - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All rights reserved.

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